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Tribal Nina le Meitei Hnam (Scheduled Tribe Status & Meiteis)

Friday, December 9, 2022

/ Published by Ralsun Hmar


~ Dr. John H Pulamte

 Thuhmatawng:

Tulaia Manipur phairuoma phaimi le tlángmihai laia titina le insêlna suktamtu le trongki insáng chen inhmang khumna chu Meitei haiin traibal nina (scheduled tribe status) an ngênna thu a nih. Hi thu hi ‘a tirin thu a um’ a’nthok êma tran naw khomin a bul deu meta tran trûla a’nlang leiin hang pur inthûk met ei tih.

An hnam chanchin hluihai a’nthoka hriet dân chun Meiteihai hi pahnam 7 (pasari) – Mangang, Luwang, Khuman, Angom, Moirang, Chenglei/Sarangleisangthem le Kha-Nganba haia inthoka hung suok le, Isu pieng hma deia tuta an umna ram lo del tah an nih. An chanchin hluihai inziekna ‘royal chronicle’, anni’n ‘Cheitharol Kumbaba’ an ti a chun mumal taka lal, lalram le a roreltu neia an um tranna chu AD 33 kum ni’n an ziek a; an lalram ‘Ningthouja dynasty’ indin hmasataktu khom Pakhangba niin chu lalram chun an 1955 chen a aw.

Mihriem nunphung pangngai zuia lalram nei chauh nilovin khawvel hnam ropui hmasahai angin anni hawrop ngei nei an nia, kum zabi 6-na laia an poisa thir, anni hawrop ngeia insut le an lungdaw hai tulai hnaia hmusuok a nih. An hawrop (Meitei Mayek) hi hawrop danghai laka a danglam bîk rieuna chu a thumal tinhai hi mihriem taksa pêng/bung hming an ni tlat hi a nih. Hriet mei mei din; an hawrop hmasatak parukhai chu – ‘kok’ (lu), ‘sam’ (sam), ‘lai’ (bawk), ‘mit’ (mit), ‘pa’ (mithmul), ‘na’ (nakawr) an nih. 1992 khan Meitei trong (Manipuri) chu India danpui Schedule 8 naa hnam le trong lien le inlâr 22 sorkarin a hrietpuihai laia inthrangtir niin a ram pumpuia sorkar sin insangtak le mitin inhnar, ‘IAS exam’ khom Meitei tronga pêk thei a ni phaa, hmathrana chuongchuong a nih. Tuhin, Meitei trong hi India poisa note-a inchuon dinga buoipui mêk niin a hmalatu ding bîk khom sorkarin mi dande a nei nia hril a nih.

An hnam làm threnkhat, Khamba-Thoibi dance, Rasleela, Pung Cholon hai hi khawvel hrieta inlár le mi hlutsak an tling a; lemchang (drama) khawvelah mi hmakhal niin an ‘Shumang Leela’ ngat lem hi chu khawvel ngainat niin an trong khom trong hlui le hlú laia tiem mêk a ni bok. Inkhêlna tieng India chauh ni lovin khawvel an déng phâk a, Manipur hi ‘sports powerhouse’ ti hiel a nih. Sakor chungchuonga milien-milalhai inkhêlna ‘Polo’ hi an tienlai Meitei lalhai tran le hmusuok a ni bok. India sorkar laipuiin a ram pumpuia ‘Sports Univesity’ hmasatak Manipur-a a’ndin le ‘Cultural University’ a pêk hi thil awm hlie hlie a nih.

Manipur phairuom hi eini rawiin, ‘bawngnene le khuoizu luongna ram’ tia ei hriet nêkin a hnienghnar lem hiel naw di’m a nih. Anni khomin ‘sanaleibak’ (rangkachak ram) an ti ve tho a ni uo. A ram hi a hnuoi a thraa, bu le balah a hnienghnar hle. Sakhuo la ursun le inhnikmi tak an ni bok lei mani ding inser le kût (festival) an hau èm ém a; thina lusûn an tuok le, nuhmei-pasal an innei pha hlak thla chenve deuthaw an nitin sin pangngai maksanin umni an khâm hlak. Hindu sakhuo le inkungkai ni le hunpui po po an inser a, an ni nêk hman hmanin an uor lem ti thei di’n a um. Rong an intheni, ‘holi’ dâm hi a neitu hmasahaiin ni khat ngawi an inser lai anni chun ‘yaoshang’ tia kovin ni 5 sung veng vong an inser. An ‘Laiharaoba’ lem hi chu a thla tèl a aw hlak. Hi hin a hril chu - sin thaw ngailoa bu le hme fâk ding an tlasam naw zie a suklang. Eini chu a teuin a hnai nawh; khristien ei ni hma lem khan chu Pathienni (chawlni) a um nawh; nitin ku kha sinthawni vong niin mani inluma um loa an lo haia an riek zân a tam. Sikpui Ruoi takngiel khom bu le bâl an hnienghnar kum naw chun an hmang ngai nawh.

Manipur le Meitei chanchin hril nikhuoa hmai ruollo chu anni laia chêng le an trong inangpui Pangal (Muslim) hai hi an nih. A hming hi ‘Bangla/Bangal’ ti a’nthoka suok a ni awm. Annihai hi kum zabi sawmpasarina bul laia Meitei lalnau (prince) pakhatin Cachar lal kuoma inthoka a unaupa lalthungphaa inthrung lai zing phetthlakpuitu dinga a hnisuok le Manipur phairuoma a thruoi luthai thlasawng peihai an nih. Tulai hnaia hunghai ruok hi chu Bangladesh tieng a’nthoka damte tea a rûk-a-râla hung intawllût nia hriet an ni tak. 2011 intiempui khan mihriem 2,39,886 bawr an ni phak a, Manipur pumpuiah zaah pariet chuong niin hnam inthrethrawpnaah OBC hnuoia umin, Manipur-a sorkar le sorkar hrietpui ofis haia sin lâkna le inchûkna hmunpuia ‘admission’ a hai, zaah pali pei chu an chan dinga sie a nih.

Kum 1717 chawhma lai khan tuta Bangladesh ni tah, Sylhet Hindu puithiem Shantidas Gosai chun Meitei reng (lal) Pamheiba chu a sakhuo hlui (Sanmahi) inhnawltirin Hindu sakhuoah a’nlet tir thruoi. A dawihla pakhat a chun Manipur chu Mahabharata ram niin Arjuna naupa Babruvahana chu Meitei lal hmasatak Pakhangba pa niin a hril pêk a; ama, Pamheiba khom chu hming thar, Garib Niwas (pasie le riengvanghai sandamtu) a phuok pèk nghe nghe. A khuo le tui, a sakhuo thar zawm nuom nawhai chu hnam chom le inthiengnawa puongin khuo a’nthok a hnotsuok tawl a; a hnungah Meitei hnam lai ‘scheduled caste’ an hung um pha.

Shantidas chun an simbudawi peia, a sakhuo thar inthranglien le ama mimal ropui zuol peina ding sukthruonawptu lientak chu an Meitei sakhuo hlui lekhabu le hawrop nia intumin an hnam le an lalhai inthlasawng pei dân chanchin inziekna, thiemna le varna le hriselnahai inziekna lekhabu hai a dawlkhawma meiin a raw hawp vong nghe nghe. Chu thil poi tlung ni, Changer (October) 5, 1732 chu ‘puya mei thaba’ tia kovin tu chen hin ursun le lungsi taka inser pawl an um. An hawrop hlui hnawlin Bengali hawrop a hmangpui a; chu hawrop chu upa tieng deuhaiin ‘sari aw, sari a; kaw khaw gaw’ ti’n hrieng an tih. Kum 2006 khan mipui norna leiin Bengali hawrop chu bânin an hawrop hlui ma, ‘Meitei Mayek’ chu skul naupang pawl 3-hai a’nthoka tranin an inchûk tran nawk chauh a nih. Puitling ta hnunghaiin zuk inchuk ve nawk nghal a thei naw leiin ‘local newspaper’ hai lem chu tu chen hin ‘Bengalee Script’ hmanga insuo an la ni a; 2023 a’nthok chu anni hawrop ngei hi an hmang ve ta el thei.

Hindua sa an phuna inthok chun lalsungkuo le an thlahai chu Raj Kumar hming an put tran a, puithiem hnamhai lai ‘sharma’ tia inko pawl an um tran bok. Chu hun lai vek a’nthok chun pasal hmingah ‘Singh’ an bel a; an nuhmeihai hmingah ‘Devi’ an bel bok. An sakhuo hlui, la ngaina le zuihai ruok chun hi hming hi an hmang ve nawh a; pasalhaiin an hming khelah ‘Meitei’ an sie el naw khoma an pahnam hming an sie a; nuhmeihaiin ‘Chanu’ an sie tlangpui. A hmaa an mithihai phûm hlakhai khan an hung inraw tran a. Lal Garibniwaz lem chun a piengna pa le a thlatu hmasahai thlàna an luru le a dang lâk theihai chu phûm anni a’nthoka kum 16 hnungah cho dokin Ningthi (Chindwin) vadung pangah Hindu sakhuo ser-le-sang zuiin ursûn mangkhengin meiin a la raw ngat a nih. An fâk le dawn siem dânhai le fâk ser chen an hung thlàk danglam a. Hindu danghai angin bawngsa k an hung khap a; a faluihai nataka hrem an ni pei.

Hi hun a’nthok hin Meitei lai chi le chi inthlierhranna lientak a pieng a, Hinduhai angin ‘caste system’ um hung nei ve a; thumal thar, ‘amang-asheng’ (a thienghlim le porche) a um pha bok. An pathien in (Temple) a chun puithiem hnam Brahmin (Bamon) naw lut a thieng ta nawh a; an sakhuo puithiem thar a tamlemhai hlak chu anni mi le a ram mi rèng ni lovin, puo tieng a’nthoka hunga Meitei saphun dàm an la ni nawk nghal. Chuong lai zing chun Meitei le Bengali kara hnam chethla, Bishnupriya hai Assam, Tripura le Bangladesh tieng a’nthok a honpui deuin an hung chimthla ve nawk bok leiin an inziet naw nuoi tah. A hma po tlangmi, abikin Tangkhul le Mirawng hnamhai le insirpawa nuhmei-pasal chen innneipaw hlakhai kha daidanna lientak a hung um a, an sunzom ta meu nawh. Meitei (phaimi) pasalin tlangmi nuhmeia a nei chun, insukthiengna khir le buoithlak em em a thaw a ngai tah. Chu ser le sang laia pakhat chu bawng zun le a êk tui le chokpol dawn annaw khoma puithiem pasal ke sawpna tuithli dawn a nih. A turu.

Manipur histawria hun inchikthlak nawk em em chu 1819 - 1826 sûnga tlung, anni tronga ‘Chahi Taret Khunthakpa’ (kum sari sûng rinumna) a nih. Hi hun hi Burma lal Bagbidaw in lalthrungpha a hluo kuma Manipur hung rûna a hneban leia kum 7 sûng zet a opde lài hun a nih. Hril ruolloin a suk rimsi a, mihriem nuoi 5 chuong suotramin nuoi 3 chuong an ram tieng sala a thruoi thu hril a nih. Chuong hun laia an lal, Marjit chu baklengin Cachar tieng a tlanhmang hman hrâm. Chu laia Cachar lal chu a piengpui, a sangpa Gambhir Singh a lo ni hlauh leiin British hai an inpun a, Saphai hlakin harsa lo te’n an Burmese-hai chu an hnotdok ang loi si. Inremna thuthlung, ‘Treaty of Yandabo 1826’ le 1833-a East India Company le Manipur inremna chun Jiribam biel le a sak tienga Zonauhai chengna ram lientak chu a mi chenghai remtina laa rawn der hran lovin Manipur-ah a rînlut a nih.

Hieng lai hun a’nthok hin British roreltu le sipaihai chu Manipur renghai inlalna le rorelna a hai damte te’n anni tranghma siel pumin an inrol tran a. Zonauhai chanchina mellung poimaw, 1871-72 kuma thil tlung, ‘Lushai Expedition’ hmasalem khom khan Manipur sim-sak tienga Kamhau-Sukte lalhai tukdawl dingin British sipai hotu WF Nuthall inrawina hnuoiah Manipur reng Chandrakirti Singh khom sipai 2000 ruol thruoiin Burma ramri bul chen a tlung a ni kha. Hi truma rengpa ramsuok hin ‘chuhai-khahai a hne’n a tukdawl’ ti hril ding a um nawh; a kîr tieng Guite lalropui Gokhothang chu zaihlemna thrangin a man thu le Imphal chen khaidiet inbuntira a thruoi thu le a thi chen lunginah a khum thu ruok chun hril a hlaw vieu. Tulai hnaia Manipur sorkarin Chandrakirti sulhnung hmutheia a lo la umna, Chivu (chituikhur) hmuna rengpa hming chawia ‘park’ a siem chu unau Paite-Zomi hnam lai a lawmnaw pawl an um.

1890-91 khan rêng sungkuo laia lalthrungpha inchuna leiin buoina lien a suok a; a threthrawp dinga Assam a’nthoka hung British sorkar hotu lien nunrawng taka that a nih. Kumpinu sorkar le Manipur an indo pha a, April 23, 1891 in Khongjom indonaah Meitei lal a tlawm a, Manipur pumpui chu British opdena hnuoiah a um ta khong khong. 1947-a India an suoksan hnung sawtnawteah thawluina thrangin Manipur reng nuhnungtak le India sorkar aiaw chun Shillong hmunah ‘Merger Agreement’ an ziek a, chu dungzui chun Changer (October) 15, 1949 a'nthok Manipur chu India Union hnuoiah a lût. Hi inremna hi pom loa ‘independent’ la suol pawl le Changer 15 hi kum tin ‘Black Day’ tia inser pawl tu chen hin an la um.

British haiin Manipur an op lai khan phairam chu state Durbar hnuoia enkai niin tlangram chu a hran lieuin sap pachal (Political Agent) ngeiin dairekin a enkai bik a nih. Phairam le tlangram angkhata ro relpek le enkai a ni ngai nawh. 1949 a’nthoka 1972-a full statehood a hmu hma po le Union Territory anga a um lai khom khan Hill Minister reng bakah Commissioner pangngai neka insang, ‘Hill Commissioner’ in a enkai. Statehood a hmu tawmin Parliament meuin Manipur Autonomous District Council hi a rel a ni a; Manipur tlangram bîk lieu lieua dingin a ram danpui (Constitution)-ah Article hran, 371(C) inchuon khom a nih.

Traibal nina chu:

India’n zalenna tluontling a hmu hlim laia danpui (constitution) thar an buoipuia an hmang hlim lai khan Meitei hai hin traibal (scheduled tribe) ni lo thlanghai sien chu ni ngei ding ngirhmuna um an nih. Manipur ang thoa ‘princely state’ Hindu sakhuoa insunglût ve tho le anni neka pil inthûk, Tripuraa mihai hman an ni chun. An lo ni naw kha tuta nihai vangneina a ni’l. Chuong ang ‘golden chance’ chu 1981 lai khom khan an hmu nawk; chu khom chu hnam chunghnung an nina hrie kurin le an hmusit le siehnuoi traibal, hmusitna trongbaua,‘Hao’ an tihai le thuhmun hang ni nawk chu thi rina an rin lei ni mei a ta, an hnawl nawk. 1990 tung lai khan Mandal Commission rotna dungzuiin ‘Other Backward Classes (OBC)’ anga central le state-a zieklut chu an nih. OBC hai hin ‘All India level’ (India pumpui-ah) ‘27 percent’ le Manipur-ah ‘17 percent reservation’ an nei a; Manipur bîka ‘17 percent’ an’thoka ‘23 percent’ nawk (hril dàn dangah, zaah 17 a’nthoka 4 pei) chu Meitei-Pangal (Muslim) hai chan dinga hlepthlak pêk nawk a nih. ST haiin India pumpui-ah ‘7.5 percent’ le Manipur-ah ‘31 percent reservation’ ei nei a; SC hai India pumpui-ah ‘15 percent’ le Manipur-ah ‘2 percent’ sie pek an ni ve thung. OBC a hin ‘creamy layer’ tiin an nu le pahai kumkhat sum lamsuok cheng nuoi 8 a tling chun inhuomtir thei an ni naw leiin Manipur-a Meitei chu a thren ‘General’, a thren ‘OBC’, a thren ‘SC’-ah an um.

Traibal lo ni ta lo, Meitei, traibal ni thar dinga langchang taka norna hi 2012 khan Scheduled Tribe Demand Committee (STDCM) hming chawia hma lak thar a ni a. A tir chun sorkar thuneitu le khawpui mihaiin an nuisaw titia chu a hnungthuoltu le kong iengkima an kaiza vengtuhai zàrin hma an sawn hrât hle. Kum 2015-a Manipur phairama ‘ILP movement’ le tlangram, abîkin Churachandpur-a ‘3 Bills buoina’ kha hi thil le intringmata ngai thei a nih. India Prime Minister kuoma hnina an siem fepeiin Union Tribal Affairs Ministry chun Manipur chu, ‘Meitei hnamhai khawtlang nun, fak le dawn ngirhmun’ ripawt kimchang pe dingin a hung ngêna chu tu chen hin a la don lêt nawh. Tuta STDCM hai ngên le phût tak chu ‘hi donna hi Manipur-in pe phot raw se’ ti a nih. A khêl tienga an hmalak sunzom pei dàn ding hrietna ding ni bokin.

Meiteihai hi hnam pui, a mi le rama sorkar kuthnung lo tamna, sum le paia mani tawka intodel tak le anni trong le hawrop ngeia lekha lo inchûk an ni lei ni ngei a ta, thiemna le varna tieng tlangmihai le tekhi ruol an ni nawh. Sierkop, hrietnavar, kut themthiemna le hriselna tieng hi an chemfena zawng nisien a ang. Tulai hnaia MBBS/BDS inchûk thei dinghai (NEET-UG) exama khan Manipur bîka ‘top 100’ ah tlangmi pakhat khom an um nawh; 200 chena 8 an uma; 300 chena 24 an um trawk. India hmarsaka tlangmi ‘Superspecialist Doctor’ um po po hi Meiteihai zatve-zatve tling kher nawng ei tih. Hi hin thil tamtak a hril. Tlawmin ‘social sciences’ le ‘civil service’ tieng an bàksam meta chu hma an sawn hrât hle; kum tin All India Services ekzam-a inziekkai pahni-pathum bêk an um zie tah. An lo tam tham deu ta leia inkeibum mumal thei ta lo an ni lei mani ding a hnam pum huopa pawl lien bîk ti thei ruok chu an nei nawh. Manipur pumpui huopa Inchuklai Pawl anga insâl pali-panga an um a; thralaipawl le ‘youth club’ po po inzomkhawmna anga ngai kutpara tiem khop an nei. STDCM hmalakna khom a hman hmanin pawl hming ropui tak tak phuokin an thlop thu an puong insawk a ni tak.


A kakhawk thei ding:

State puitling neitu le chalaitu an ni meu leiin ditsaktu le thrangpui nuomtu an um ngei ding baka thuhne thei ding an nei ngei ding a chieng sa; an beisei le duthusam hi hung hmu thut elhai sien a kakhawk ding hi buoipui tham a ni ding. Manipur state sunga ‘recruitment’ le ‘admission’ haiah chu Assam thaw dan angin ST (plain) le ST (hills) zawnga thre thei nîng a ta; a buoi taluo naw el thei. Anachu, India pumpui thil a ni pha chu tuta traibal ni lai zinghai ta dingin nuizat um kher naw nia; trapna bang zût el thei an tih. General/OBC an ni hmana hnam lien le chunghnunghai le inela hieng chen an tlung thei chun, ST chanvo le hamthratna (concession) thrang chun duoi naw nihai. Tutaka ST hai laia chunghnung le ST chan ding po po lai a zatve deuthaw hluotu Rajasthana Meena hnamhai nèkin an insang lem ring a um. Meiteihai ST an hung ni ve chun Manipura lo ni tasahai chauhin thawhla lovin India ram pumpuia ST haiin an thawhla ding tina a ni chu.

Meitei traibal an ni theina dinga phusa le hmalatu haiin a tira an ip trit tret, tu tieng tienga hung inlang tran pheu pheu ruok chu sorkar sin le inchûkna hmun insânga traibal chanvo ni lovin hmun le ram (land) dei a nih. Manipur pumpui zaah-sawmkuo hi tlangrama tlangmihai ta a ni a; zaah sawm chauh chu a ram neitu anga inngaihai ram a nih; chutaka chun Tuibangpui (Loktak Lake) le dûm le tui hmun danghai, tlángbawk nek nek le sorkar hmunpui lienhai hang pei chun ieng ruol rak chu a ni ta naw hrim a nih. Tlangmihaiin phairmaah hmun ei dit le neiin a zo ang ang neia ei hluo thei lai anni’n tlangramah an nei ve thei nawh. Traibal an hung ni chun chu indaidanna chu damte tea thriek a ni ding a nih. A chu a ni mi’n an hril.

Chuong lai zing chun, nitin a za têla state dang a’nthoka vai hung lûthai hi hawphurum tham an ni nawk a. Rêl lampui bawl zo mék a ni taa, zo a nia a hung lût tak tak pha chu puotieng a’nthok mihriem a hung phurlût sa ngei awm si a. Inner Line Permit (ILP) hin umzie a nei tak tak nawh a; nei thut chuong naw nih. Delhia roreltuhai dit khom a ni nawh. Hnam khat, nunphung khat khêlah ‘sakhuo pakhat’ changchawi nuomtuhai duoimadim an ni nawh.

Traibal ni tuma thapui takmeu insuo le hlawtling ngei tuma beipui an thlàk zing laia an lungkham rûk le ngaituosa lo theilo chu ‘ST ni chie ding nihai sien’, tuta an Meitei SC hai ngirhmun ding, an thruoilut ve ding am an umna ngaiah an um ding ti a nih. An hnawl le hnotsuokhai hnuoia an um nawk dàn a um tlat. An lalsungkuo hnam, ‘Raj Kumar’ le Bramin (Bamon) khom ST an hung ni chie chun India rampuma Hindu sakhuo zuituhai inthrethrawp dan le ‘caste system’ a hung nghong ngei bok ding. Anni Meitei chu thuhran a la nih; Meitei-Pangalhai ngirhmun ding mol hi a nih ngaituo um ding. Tuta OBC-a an um khawm hman hin an chan siet bîk taluo thu inzawta nuorinpheng zing an ni nakalai an chunga um, Meiteihai ST hung nia anni OBC an ni sunzom chun khawsaknaa harsa le domsang hmasa trulhai hrietfuklo le maksan an ni ding niawm a na leh!

A ieng po khom nisien, dân pangngai anga hi thua thuneina insáng nei chu New Delhia ‘Ministry of Home Affairs’, ‘Registrar General of India’ le ‘National Commision for ST’ hai an nih. A hmasa pahnihai nèkin a nuhnungtak hi ST hai ta dinga thrangkhaw bîk dinga ngai a ni leiin palthleng chu a khir met el thei. Sienkhom, iengkim hi pawlitiks vong a nih; tulai taka India insorkarnaa thuneitu tak le thuneitu tak dothai kutpar voikhat hmetpuokin thu a hril rawnin a hril naw thei taluo. ST ni theina ding ‘dân le dûn’ induonga um hieng - hnam hnufuolhai zie nei; nunphung danglam bik rieu nei; hmun khawlbinga um; mi dang le insirpaw lo le, taksa khawsakna le fak le dawn zongna tieng hnufuol tihai hi chu a zieka um dang a um naw leia um zing mei mei an nina chin a um. Inhumhimna bang ngheta ngai chi ni naw nih. A hrilfietu le hril dan izir khom a ni thei a, a detindo nawh. Mak danglam deuin Meitei pahnam hminghai hi an lalsungkuo hnam RK (Raj Kumar) ti lo chu ‘M’ in a tawp deu vong chu tie. Entirna tlawmte chauh - Athokpam, Brachaspatimayum, Chongtham, Elangbam, Ngangom, Irengbam, Moirangthem, Nongthombam, Okram, Paonam, Sapam, Thangjam, Utam, Wahengbam, Yumnam le a dang dang. Hi hi ST ni theina dinga kraiteria (criteria) pakhat sukdikna chun hmang naw awm tak an nih.

National Games Village, Imphal

December 5, 2022

(Hi thusep ziek hi thil inhoi chie chu a ni nawh; mi poi hrilna thei a nih. Poimaw tina rieu ka nei leiin ka hung pu ve chot el a nih. Vantirkohai fe ngam nawnaah miinvethai an lengpar ang chu ni awm naw tak ka na - JP)

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