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EI HUN TAWNG MEK: FEUDALISM

Monday, February 24, 2020

/ Posted by VIRTHLI
~ Rev.Dr.Robinson.S.Zote


Ram le Hnam tinin chanchin inchik tlak le hrietzing tlak ei nei seng a, Chanchin (History) neilo Ram le Hnam khawvel ah umkher naw ni hai. Hi hi Ram tin Hnam tin, alien a chin, a hausa le rethei ei in angna anih. Chanchin suimi Histawrian hai chun Hun hi Hunpui Pathum in an the thawp a, chuonghai chu: (i) Ancient Age (Tienlai Hun), (ii) Medieval Age (Hun Lailung/Hun Laklaw), (iii) Modern Age (Thangthar Hun). Khawvel, Ram le Hnam chanchin, a iengpo khawm nisien hieng hunpui pathuma the thawp anni tlangpui. Hieng hun haihi an pawimaw dan an dang seng a, thiltlung khawm a hun dungzuiin an ang vawng nawh. Hieng hunpui pathum hai bakah hin a dang, Pre-History leh Contemporary History hai an nih. Pre-History chu chanchin um hma, Tienlai Hun (Ancient Age) in tan hma hrilna a hmang ani deu tak a, Contemporary History ruok chu ei tu hun, ei hun tawng le pal mek hrilna a kawk. 

Khawvel le Rambung tin reng haiin Thangthar hun (Modern Age) ei fe khel tah tithei ei tih. Europe lek lem chu Modern Age a alutna AD 1453 lai daih kha an tah a, America khawm hi huna a lutna hun sawt tak ani tah a, Asia khawm an thang hrat hle. Ei chengna India takngiel khawm kum 1764 deia kha lut ve an tah. Khawl (industry) thahratna hmanga sin thawna hai khawm AD 1761 a inthawka thiltlung an tah a, Khawvel in modern age ei fekhel a, computer age ah ei lut a, Modern age liemmek ah tuhin scientific age tiin khawvel chu science thiemna le hrietna tieng an thanghrat ngang el, scientific invention tamtak a piengsuok ta bawk. Ei tu hun pal le tawng mek Contemporary hun ruok chu an dang ta hle. “The age of Space” ti hiel a inbuk ani tah. Vansang le Thlapa ah Hnuoi mi hai eiin kap kai zut zut elchu an ta hih!

Ei Khawvelin Hunpui inthlak tamtak alo hmelhriet tah a, Hun thar ami lut pui zing lai hin, eini rawi hi ienghun am ei um a, ti tluka zawna pawimaw hi umthei naw nih. Modern Age ah maw?, Computer age? Medieval Age a la um zing am ei nih? Khi a chunga ei thupui hrilfiena le ei umna Hunpui ei in hmu chieng theina ding in, inenna darthlalang ka hung in thut.

Europe ah Medieval Age hun lai rampum huopin fedan chikhat an nea, chu chu, ‘Feudalism’, an tih a ,’ Feudal Age’ tia hriet ani bawk. Hi Feudal system hnuoi ah ram mipui chu hlawm (class) thum a the in an um a,chuonghai chu : (i) Priest (Puithiem/Pastor) (ii) nobility (Milien/Neinung) (iii) peasants (Mirethei/Kutsinthaw). A class insangtak chu Kohran (Church) le Puithiem/Pastor ruolan nih a, hmun le ram a thlawn a pek an nih a, Leiman sie (tax) an chawi ngai nawh. A dawt ah, ram lien tak tak nei a, roreltu pawl hawn khat an um nawk a, chuonghai chu Noble class an na, Landlord tia ko le hriet an nih. Anni rawi hin khawtlang ah nina insang tak tak an nei a, ramneitu Landlord anni tlat leiin an ram sunga hlo thlomi le sinthaw hai a inthawkin sie (tax) an keikhawm a, Chuong hlothlo le sinthawmi hai chu Peasants an tih. Hieng mi hai hin ngirhmun inhnuoitak an hluo a, ral a um hunah ralhmatawng le ralkap tu a hmang anni nghal bawk.

Hienganga khawtlang a pawl hlawm (class) a inthethawp na hin Rom Lalram (Roman Empire) tluksiet hnungin Europe ram pumpui ah hun sawttak bu alo khuor a. Modern Age an hung chuongkai hnung khawmin a bo hnaisai nawh. Bo ta nek hmanin ,Italy leh Germany ah 1871 chen bu a khuor a, France ah 1789, Russia a lem chu 1917 chen khan an la hmang anih. Hi hunsung mi hausa han (wealthy class) thuneina vawrtawp an chang le chelek hun ani top el anih.

Hiengang deu bawhin India ram akhawm Satahavanas le Gupta Lalhai hun dei tah a inthawk Puithiem hai kuomah ram athlawna pek an lo ching tah. Hun hung fe peiin, sipai le roreltu, sawrkar sinthawtu hai kuom lawmman le hlaw aiin ram pekin an hung um ve ta pei a, Mughal Lalhai hun a hungin hersuok lem khan chu’ Zamindari System” a hung hrat kher el. Ram lien tak tak nei hai chu ZAMINDAR tia ko an hung ni ta pei anih. Pawl insiemin, ramruok lien tak takhai chu hieng milien hausa ruolin an insem el hlak ti in la hrisuol taluo nawm ei nih. Hieng Zamindar hai hnuoiah lo sinthaw mi a zatel an um a, leiman le ram hawman pawisa an chawi a ngai a, Zamindar hai hi a tlangpuiin khawpui ah an cheng a, an lo le ram sinthawtu enkai dngin Agent an nei fur a. Agent ruol hlak chu ‘Lal ngailo Lal akha’ ti ang khan, lo sinthaw mirethei hai chungah nunrawng an insuo a, an tawrawt hle bawk. Khawthal/Khawkheng, Tuilet/Tuilien, Tam le kumsiet kum a hai khawm, a pangai an dang nawh, sie (tax) chu a ngai ngai a lak ani tho tho. Anni puola ram, thlai le bu tu na ding an nei si nawleiin, nuom le nuom naw, nei le neinaw hrillovin, tangka a pung tam taktak (interest)um in an bat a tula, an kum khat sin inrimra an sik pha hlak chu, Mahajon ruol in man tlawm te te in an kharsawng pek a, chu rasuok chu Sumdawng pawl (Merchant class) le Sumpung sem pawl (Money lender class) a hung pieng pha tah anih.

Sum puktu tamlem chu, mimawl lekha hrelo an ni leiin, bat petlak a an inngai zing lai, batbu ah an hming thaibo in a um ngai sinaw leiin, damsunga sungkuo awngrawp a ngirsuok thei talo tam tak an um. A tawi zawngin, lainatna le hrietthiemna bo, Lungril duam, Milien in michin, Neinung in Pasie rawk theina tinrengin a rawk ti hin a hril fie tak awm.

Ei umna le ei huntawng mek hi ka en vel a, Feudalism hun ah ei kir nawk mek niin ka hmuh. European le Indian feudalism chu ei hlat naw chau ni lovin ei ni lai bu a khuor nghet zek lem an ta naw maw? Medieval age hun ah ei Ram (Ram chu ei nei nawh) Hnam le society a la um zing le Feudalism hun lai anga eikhawsak na san ni thei awm thenkhat a hnuoia ang hin ka hung rem khawm:

A pakhatna ah, Ram leilung hi a pawimaw hle. Leilung insieng tira inthawka aman tlahnuoi ve ngai lo, kum a tam po leh a hlutna pung deu deu chu RAM LEILUNG hi ani. Ei society ah neinung filawr le hausa chu mi tlawmte chau ei nih. Lozau, ramruok, tlang le muol hai chu an kutah a lut teu tah. Tlangram Lal (Chief) hai kuta inthawkin mi neinung kutah iemanizat a lut tah a, a lut mek a, la lut pei bawk atih. Ram leilung neitu chu tu iruot hranpa ngailovin, Thuneitu le roreltu ani nghal. Jamabandi system in neitu nina a suknghet a, Sawrkar in Pattadar a peksuok pha neitu nina a hrietpui (recognized) tina anih.Abikin Manipur a cheng hai, Sawrkar in Manipur Land Revenue and Land Record Act (MLR&LR Act) ami hmang khum a, Tuithaphai le a sevel a chenghai chu, ka hriet suol naw chun Jamabandi/Patta system hin ami huom vawng anih. Chu leiin hi system lei hin mima kutah ram /patta a lut a, ei khawtlang roinrelna le thutlukna hai khawm mi tlawmte hai kutah um vak tang atih.

A Pahnina ah, mi hausa iemani zatin  sum pung an sem a, percent tam tak tak an lak bawk. Hi sum pungum laktheina ding chun a surety/security ding in service book, pension book, inhmun patta,ram patta ti hai ngiet a, mi vantlang hai thilneisun anni kutah a um teltul el anih. An intlan zo naw alo ni chun, an thil siekham chu chawplechil in inpuktir tu ta anih. Mihausa iemani zatin society an insiem a,msociety hmingin, a pung hnawti sum an huikhawm a. A neihai chu pek belin um an ta, neinaw chu a neisun khawm lak pekin um atih ti ziek ang khan, A hauhai hau deudeu an ta, a pasie chu a neisun takngielkhawm lakpek in a um ding anih ti hi, ei hun tawng mek, thudik thup ruollo chu anih.

Sumpung sem e tilo chun, Sumpung zuk puk el ding a vang zek. Hieng sumpung semtu hai hin a tlangpuiin  agent an nei a, annawleh Agent a invir iemani zat an umbawk, chuong Agent hai chun an sumpung zawngpek man KAWMISAWN an la bak teu nawk nghal. An hril danin Agent- hai fethleng naw chun sumpung hmu ding a um ta mang nawh an ti chuh! Haire Hai.

A Pathumna ah, Western fashion,Computer technology, western music, arts, science hai hi, eini lai hung lut sienkhawm ei ta an nawh. Mi ta ei haw le entawn an nih. Mi’n modern age an fekhel tak lei elin ei fekheltah tina ani chuong nawh. Midang hunbi ei va tawm/koppui ani lem. Ataktak in, ei ni rawi hi modern age ah lut chu hrillo, a dak khawm ei la dak phak naw chau ni lovin, a hlimthlakhawm ei lahmu bawk nawh, medieval age ah ei um a, chu khawm chu Feudal Age a lut mek ei ni chau lem. A tawi zawngin eilut in le tina anih. Iengleiin am? Modern age a ei lut theina di’n eini tuolsuok/kutsuok le siemsuok iengkhawm ei lanei nawh, misiem le thawdan inkawppui ei ni chau lem. Khawl, damdawi, hmangruo, incheina le a dang dang ei kutsuok a um nawh. Literature revival, renaissance, reformation, humanism, scientific invention, industry, scientific knowledge, advancement eini lai ala pieng bawknawh. Kohran ah danglamna a um nawh a, khawtlang a khawm chuong tho, politics a lek lem chu, a pangai an dang nawh. Ngaidan le ngaituona thar (new thought and ideas) a um bok nawh, Um ta nekin mani ngaidan le Ngaituonathar ei nei ve sun hai ngaikawi lui tlata, mimal kam zalenna (freedom of speech) hupbo pek tuma mawng inza ei tam leiin ei ziek in ei hril ngamnaw vang lem, cultural progress ei nei chuong hliek nawh,chutanekin bo tieng a pan, mass economic development lek lem chu vana ra.

Palina ah, Feudal society angin ei society ah, mihriem inkar a indaidangna bang chun inphan tieng nekin sa tieng a pan deu deu. Mi tlawmte neinung han ram lien tak tak, hmun le hmang an neia, chuong mi hausa le neinung hai kuomah, nitin inhlawna ding le sin ei va zawng a. Chuong chn Pu (Landlord) ei hung nei a ,an mi sawr,an sin thawtu eilo nitah. Hi Pawl inhlawmthe (Class society) hi Feudal society huna a hrat hle ang khan ,ein lai khawm a hrat deu deu ding. A nei chu khawtlang le kohran ah mi challang an hung ni a, an mizie in a zir lemchun, Kohran Upa chu bela sa hmin sa ang anih. A var le var naw, thiem le thiemnaw, Tlin le tlin naw thu an nawh, Mi challang ani tlat leiin kawng iengkim ah mi pauzo a hung nih a, mi naran chu ieng angin thiem sienkhawm mi pauzo ni theina kualifikesawn a neinaw tlat.


Pangana ah, medieval age hun lai khan Kohran a hrat hle el a. Roman Catholic in thuneina (power & authority) lien tak an nei. Mimal ngaidan le thil hril chu iengang in indik lem sienkhawm, Kohran inchuktirna le ringdan a kalchun, Pathien kal ang khawpa ngaiin, hremna natak leh kohran danpuo a sie le hnawtsuokin an lo umhlak. Chuongang deu chun ei Hnam le khawtlang a khawm hin, Kohran lien bik le langsar iemani zat hai thu chun lukhawng a nei a, Kohran pawl chin lem hai chu dawnsak anni bek nawh niin an lang. Roman Catholic Kohran in sawrkar fawng cheltu hai an thuhne angin, ei tulai Kohran pawllien thenkhat in Sawrkar fungchel thenkhat an thuhne hlebawk Emperor Constantine (AD 306-337) huna inthawk khan Rome sawrkar chu Roman Catholic/Kristien zirtirna an zawm tir a, Emperor Theodosius I (AD 379-395) hun a inthawk lemkhan chu a ram sakhuo (state religion) ni dinga pawmzui nghal anih. Hi hin kha hunlai a ram roinrelna (politics & administration) le sakhuo (religion) an inthui mat zie le, Catholic Church in Sawrkar a thuhne dan le a thunei khum zie an entir.

Tu khawm hin mi nungchang le mi thawdan tha nia ei ngai hai lasawnga, ei dan tesep siemfawm le inkal taphawt chu, Pathien dan kala ngaiin, ei in thunun a, Faru hausa le sawrkar thilkhap zawra hausa (Smuggler), le challanga chunga kutthlak ngam si lovin,nuhmei pasal indit le inhmangaia  inru hai chungah ei inluling an nawm anih? Chuongang Faru neinung le challang chunga kutthlak ding chun ei kut a rik a,thlakta nek hmanin, belpui ei in awt tir lem hlauh. Pui chem chem tak einih, ana chu ei ropui lem nawh. Khawtlang khawm, Inruithei zawr seng seng an kar a kik. Veng keltil a ngaidi in chite a hmeithei, Aigupta lengmaser funte tuifim zawrtu chu ei zuom zek, Khawsunga pucca in sunga Babulon lengmaser tuisen zawr ruok chu en dan a dang. Nasat chu ei nasa. Baab re baap...

Parukna ah, Feudal hunlai khan, Pawl anga thilthaw le Pawl anga inthununa (group activities & control) tiengpang khawtlang ah a hrat hle a, mi mal ditdan le zalenna (Individual interest & freedom) in hmuna nei nawh. Mipui mimir in nuom nuom hril theina zalenna an nei bawk nawh. Ei hun pal mek a khawm hin chuong tho chu anih. Pawlkhat/Hawnkhat in an nuom angin khawtlang le ram an thunun a, an thilthaw indik sien, indiknaw sien, an thilthaw le thuinsuo kalzawnga che le tawngbau neihai thiltuok chu, mitdel le naset hai hrietthei khawpa a ri ana hlak leiin, hrilser ah ei ngai a, ei in veng a, tapte bula bak rawl ei insuo ngam ta nawh. An hman hman in, bandh/blockade/ strike an ko a, a tuortu chu mirethei nitin fakfawm zawng hai bawk ei nih.


Pasari na ah, Conflict and confrontation of culture and language hun ah ei ngirmek. Hi hi Europe, America leh Asia rambung han an fe khel tah. Entirna dingin- America ah Spaniard, Portuguese, French le English hai kumzabi 16 lai vel khan an va lut a, alo umsa, Incas (Peru), Cortes, Aztecs (Cuba & Maxico), Arawaks (Caribbean & Brazil) leh Mayas hnamhai civilization va suksie in, anni Europe nunphung chu an suknghet ta lem a. Alo umsa hnamhai chu hnam bohmang an hung nih a, Red Indian hai khawm an mang zo tah. Chuongang bawkchun, ei society ah cultural and language invasion ei hmaituo mek. Mizoram a inthawk dam, Korea a inthawk dam, Vai le Sap haia inthawkin, Hla, Fashion (incheina), Music, Film/Serial le a dang dang in ami thunun tah. Ami lem zo pha lem chu, ei ta hai iengma loah ngaiin mi ta changkang bik, thabik rieua hrietna bawiah eintang pha chu intalsuok intak ta hleng atih. Tuai le Patil, nei thuhmun inkawphai khawm kawtthler ah an ngampa hle. Manipur a Meitei scholar hai chun, "Impact of the Korean films upon the youth in the present society." ti dam hi reseach an lo thaw zo diem tah. Eini lai chu chuong ang khawmchu ei ngaisak bawk nawh. An culture humhim an nuomna leiin Bollywood (VAI Film) ei ti khawm an pawlhaiin iemani chena inthawk khan an lo khap ta hrim ani kha. Korea film le serial khom hi khap naw nihai ti tum a hril thei?

Abikin Manipur, Churachandpur district a chenghai, sungril ruk taka ei innekna le ei buoina (Secret confrontation) chu ieng Tawng tak him tawng tuolleng a hmang ding ti hi anih. Kuki/Thado maw, Hmar, Paite, Lusei/Mizo, Gangte, Vaiphei,Tedim Chin le adang dang. Sungril taka ei innekna hriltu chu, Tuibuong (Tuibong) Hqtrs a All India Radio sukhring a a umkhan a hrilfieching bal.

A tawpna takah, Feudalism hun lai khan khawpui an thang hrat hle a (growth of Towns), a thei taphawt in khawpui chu fak zawngna dingin an bel a. Chuongang bawk chun, ei Hmarbiel suoksan in a thei taphawt in, fakzawngna thalem, nauhai inchukna beiseiin Tuithaphai ei bel supsup chu ani hih. Ei ram del chu hnungsawn ram an chang zo tep, siksik rieu an inhram hun hla ta kher naw nih. Hlotho a ei sininrim nan varal ami kaipui sinawh, thuomthar(technology) ei nei nawh a, atien a tlanga ei hmang, Tuthlaw bak chel ding ei nei nawh. Hun laklaw ah ei ngir tak meumeu. Inthang dawk chuong silo, hmasawn bawklo hnungtawl bawklo, Modern age hlak tlungphak tak taklovin ei uma, Hnam lungsietum chu ei ni mawl el.


A chunga ka tarlanglo khawm tam tak la um atih. Khi po khawm khin ka thutum a sukfie ka ring. Khi darthlalang ah mani seng in en in, ei umna le ei hun tawng hmufie seng thei dingin ditsakna tiemtu popo kan hlan.

20th February.2020.
11:45pm.  (SST).
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