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Jammu and Kashmir, Article 370, India le Khawvel

Tuesday, August 6, 2019

/ Posted by Simon L Infimate
Thuhmahruoi

Aug 14-15, 1947 khan India le Pakistan in zalenna ei hmu a. Kha ni khan India ram huomsung ah states zaruk lai an um a. Saphaiin an nuomna tieng tieng kawp dingin thuneina an lo pek. A temlemin Indian Union an hung join a. Amiruokchu, a hnuoia state pathum hai khun 1947 a ei PM Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, a Home Minister Sardar Patel le Foreign Minister VP Menon hai lu an sukhai hle.

1. Junagarh, tuta Gujarat a um.

2. Hyderabad, tuta Telangana a um le

3. Jammu and Kashmir.

Awleh, Junagarh state le Hyderabad state haiin India an hung join dan chu hun danga dingin siethang ei ta. Vawisun chu Jammu and Kashmir state in Indian Union a lo kawpdan le a lo kawpna san hai tarlang phawt ei tih.


1947 Independence le Jammu and Kashmir state

August 15, 1947 khan Jammu and Kashmir state kha Hindu lal Maharaja Hari Singh i enkawlna hnuoia um a ni a. Ei hriet thei dan dingin tuta politician inlar Dr Karan Singh a pa a nih. Sawrkar chu lal Hari Singh le a Prime Minister Meher Chand Mahajan in an chel a. Mipui a tamlem chu Muslim an nih. Lal Maharaja Hari Singh a dit naw tam tak an um bawk. A langsar bik chu Sheikh Abdullah kha a nih. August 15, 1947 khan Maharaja Hari Singh in jail ah a khum a. Sheikh Abdullah hi tuta politician inlar Farooq Abdullah pa a nih.

Saphaiin British India le state hai dithlangna India annawle Pakistan nuomna tieng tieng kawp theina an pek khan Maharaja Hari Singh hin a lungril ruk takin India join a lo nuom ve a. Anachu a hril dawk ngam nawh. A lal rama Hindu le Sikh haiin India an join nuom bawk. An tam nawh. Amiruokchu mipui a tamlem in Pakistan kawp an nuom a. Chun Sheikh Abdullah le a rawihaiin independent Kashmir a um an nuom thu an sopui ve.

Hieng hi a boruok a ni leiin, ei PM hmasatak Pu Nehru in a Home Minister Sardar Patel chu Maharaja Hari Singh inhmupuiin Sheikh Abdullah an rang thei anga jail a inthawka insuo a ni dan ding lampui dap dingin an cha ta a. Inbiekna an nei ta a nih.

Maharaja Hari Singh a rama helna

Hienga boruok a um lai hin October tha bul, 1947 khan Poonch khuo, Jammu and Kashmir huomsung ah helna a suok thut el a. Lal Hari Singh dit lo pawl le Pakistan join nuom haiin buoina an siem leiin, Pakistan in a hung support tawl a. October 20, 1947 khan Rajauri le Nausherra khuo hai chu helpawl haiin an hung lak ta pei a. Lal sipai an hung hneban pei a. Maharaja chu a tla a phang em em.

Pakistan helpawl

Chu zo met October 22, 1947 khan Pakistan Abbotabad khuo a Pashtun Lashkar hnam mi sang ruk bawr Jammu and Kashmir an hung lut a. Maharaja sipai le indo in Muzafarabad le Uri an lak a. Srinagar khawpui sevel an hung phak chun Maharaja Hari Singh le a rawihai chu Jammu tieng an tlanhmang ta a nih. An tla a phang hle. Mipui support hmu theina dingin Maharaja Hari Singh in Jammu and Kashmir chu independent a sie a nuom thu a sopui tan ta a nih.

India sawrkar thangpuina

Hienga helna le Pakistan inrawlna hin Pu Nehru lung a tawk hle a. Pu Nehru chun a Foreign Minister Pu VP Menon Jammu ah a tir nghal a. Maharaja in thangpuina a mamaw le mamaw naw thu indawn dingin October 26, 1947 khan Pu Menon khawm Jammu a vuong lut. Maharaja Hari Singh in India sawrkar thangpuina a ngen ta a nih. Jammu and Kashmir pumpui Indian Union ah thuoilutna lekha, IoA, Maharaja sui thawna chu a ziek ngeiin October 27, 1947 khan Sawrkarin a pawm nghet ta a nih. Chu ni lala chun "Operation Jammu and Kashmir" chu Indian Armed Forces haiin an tan a. 161 Infantry Brigade in Kargil, Drass le Ladakh hmun pawimaw hai helpawl kuta inthawk an lakdawk a. Indo chu June 1948 khawm khan re tieng a pan naw leiin sawrkar lu a sukhai nasa hle.

United Nations

Pakistan helpawl hai dolet theina hriemhreia hmang tumin Kashmir thubuoi chu ei PM Nehru in UN ah a putlut a. Chu zar chun kum tawp tieng India le Pakistan in ceasefire an sign thei chau a nih.

India le Pakistan Ceasefire a khan conditions pahni a ziek a. Chuong hai chu

1. Jammu and Kashmir ah mipui dithlangna election nei ning a ta. Chu chun India annawle Pakistan kawp ding le ding naw thuthlukna siem thei a tih.

2. Amiruokchu, mipui inthlangna nei ding chun indo hun a Jammu and Kashmir lal Hari Singh a ram huomsunga Pakistan sipai lo lut popo Pakistan in ko kir phawt a tih.

Pakistan in UN thurel Point No. 2 Jammu and Kashmir sunga Pakistan sipai le helpawl lo lut ta popo hai Pakistan in kokir a tih ti khi vawisunni chen hin Pakistan in a la bawzui naw leiin, India annawle Pakistan pakhat lem lem join ding le ding naw thua mipui plebesite chu nei thei a la ni nawh.

Hi lei hin Pakistan in 1947 a Jammu and Kashmir ram hmun nga a thea hmun hni a i awp zing hi PoK an ti a. Eini ruok chun, Oct 27, 1947 a Jammu and Kashmir huomsung ram popo kha Indian Union a um a nih tiin ei fe pui zing. Tuta ei inrina hi LoC an tih.

Jammu and Kashmir PM Sheikh Abdullah

Mipui support hau Kashmir thuoitu Pu Sheikh Andullah chu October 30, 1947 khan PM of Jammu and Kashmir in ruot a hung ni a. A theitawp suoin India le inlaichinna a siem ve.

Article 370

Kum 1950 a India Constitution a khan Jammu and Kashmir state chu hmun pawimaw pakhat Article 370 pek a nih. Part B state a hung ni a. Hamhatna tamtak pek a nih. Chawmkhat hnungin India a 15th state a hlangkai a hung nih.

Shyama Prasad Mukherjee

Article 370 kha Pu Nehru Cabinet a Minister Pu Shyama Prasad Mukherjee khan a dodal hle a. An resign pha hiel. Kum 1951 khan BJP party an din ta a nih.

Kum 1953 khan Jammu and Kashmir PM Sheikh Abdullah chu a nina a inthawkin Lal Hari Singh in a peithlak a. Nehru instigation lei a nih, a ti pawl an um. Kum 1954 khan Article 35A hamthatna pek an nih. PRC le ram inchawk le zawr thua thuneina insang em em pek an nih. Amiruokchu, kum 1965 khan Jammu and Kashmir PM ti hlak kha thaibo pap a nih.

CM Sheikh Abdullah

Kum 1974 khan Sheikh Abdullah chu Jammu and Kashmir CM dingin thlangtling a hung ni a. Sheikh Abdullah in a theitawp suoin 370 sukhrat a tum a. 370 sukhrat a ni phawt chun UN in plebesite a ti vet kha Jammu and Kashmir chungthuah hril hril tal o dingin Pi Indira Gandhi le lekha an ziek.

BJP

Jammu and Kashmir development thil nisien, helna nisien, investment nisien, infrastructural development, sakhuona thu nisien, Pakistan le buoina thu nisien, China le kar thu nisien, dan le dun thu nisien, inthuruolna kawng nisien, iengkimah Article 370 hi a kaikuongpa a nih, tiin BJP chun ngaidan a hung nei a. Thaibo an tum a nih. BJP Manifesto a pawimaw em em pakhat chu Article 370 thaibo a ni a. Amiruokchu, Jammu and Kashmir Assembly, Governor, Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha le President election a hai numbers an lo hmu rawn ngai naw leiin an thil tum kha an lo hlen hne ngai nawh. Kum 2008 a inthawk khan puithu takin 370 thaibo dan an sopui a. 2019 a mipui mandate inzana inentirnan nikhat khan Jammu and Kashmir state chu map a inthawkin an thaibo pap.

Tuta ei sawrkar hin huoi takin 35A le 370 chu a zuk sukbo pap ta a. Chu zova tuta an state khi hmun hniin a the pek. Union ti thupuia hmangin Jammu and Kashmir chu Indian Union huomsunga a sielut tah. 1994 a Jammu and Kashmir huomsunga ram popo India huomsunga um an nih ti Parliament in a pass kha sukdet a nih.

A hun in a zir naw leiin kha hma a mi lo thaw ngam lo thaw an ni a, khuoibu ben dar an nih, khawvelin a thlir el an tah. Sipai hlak 70,000 bawr an lut tah. A kakhaw a um chun sawrkarin a dodal dan a zaiin hriet hung ni pei a tih. Sawrkar khawma a lo tung zing.

Party a ui le kel NC, PDF le party dang dang hmunkhatin tawtawrawt an mut tan tah. Lotus hlaka uve ave a ti si nawh. Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, President, Assembly, Governor hlak an ni mi vawng. Dan le dun hei siemvat an hawi pek ta a. Pak supporters ruol khi hei nuoi met reng reng raw hai seh, a titu an tam. Committee ngun party i ben ngam lo, khuoibu bendar hai hi an huoi hle.

Congress

Kum 1950 a Article 370 sirsana Jammu and Kashmir Indian Union a an lo huoilut thei kha Congress thuoitu hmasa hai hlawtlingna ropui tak a nih. Khang hun khawvel a khan Jammu and Kashmir ang state za ruk le ti an um. Pakistan a lut nuom le mania self independent nuom an tam. Hamthatna bova India a lut nuom lo hai lobby a hrat hle. Pu Nehru khan a buddi a hmanga, Pu Patel le inthukawpin thudik le force khitkawpin states tamtak Indian Union sunga an lo huoilut. An varna hmangin Jammu and Kashmir khawm India sunga an lo huoilut thei a nih. Article 370 kha an hriemhrei pawimawtak a nih.

Article 370 leiin kum sawmsari le ti India in Jammu and Kashmir a lo thuoilawn thei a. Tun chu, boruok a dang ta a. Khawvel tukver a thlir khawma eini tienga thang ding an tam tah. Sum le pai, economy le military tieng khawm ei hausa tah. Mania thuthlukna siem thei India ei ni tah. Pu Nehru le Pu Patel hai hun ang kha an ta nawh. British haiin sum bovin an i maksan India, refugees nuoi tel vaina ding neilo, ramri thua states za ruk le buoina nei, party sunga inkhik inkhalna um bawk Congress ta ding chun 1947 a India zuk thuoidawk malama Jammu and Kashmir sopui rak kha thil harsa hle a lo nih. Amiruokchu, Pu Nehru khan a palchin khawvel le inhme peiin Article 370 le Kashmir chungthu kha a lo buoipui ve a. Chu zar chun BJP hin tun Article 370 hi thaibo thei ngirhmuna a ngir a nih.

Article 370 hi Pakistan le helpawl haiin phaw ngawtin an lo hmang hlak a. An mi chawkbuoi ngun tah. 1985 a inthawk khan an zuol bik. Helna hi map a inthawka thaibo hun an ta reng.

Ei ram Jammu le Kashmir hmun nga a thea hmun hni neka tam an mi lak pek tah. Zai ei daw taluo leiin ei committee ngun a. Thingpui sen an hung khai vet kha lo lawmlut ei thiem ti an hriet leiin an mi nuoihmat zie hlak. Tuta tum chu thingpui sen khai kha "Nahi" ei ti tah

POK huomsung Balakot ah ei va vuonglut chi khan chu ei thil tum an hriet chau.  No talks. No dosti ei hei ti nawk a. An PM khawm an rum ngam thei ta nawh. 1998 a Nuclear Bomb hmetpuok hai sawrkar a nih ti an hriet ta a, policy le ei thil thaw hai zuk dawnlet vat vat dan khawm an chiai tah. Parliament attack zova Coercive Diplomacy neka insang dai ei pal an tah.

Sipai an che pha nakie helpawlin foreigners le civilians kidnap in thanghmun khaw pal an ti ti an inlau leiin Advisories tamtak insuo a ni a. An Pathien biek dinga fe pawl tamtak Amarnath a inthawka kir dingin thu insuo a ni bawk. Tu lem hin chu Pakistanin an ramah India Sawrkar danlovin a hung lut tiin UN ah complaint a thelut lem tah.

Afghanistan factor

US in Afghanistan maksan tumin an singsa mek a. Riekin-rapa chepawl ei ram tieng an hung tlandar hman nawna dingin "Thaibo pap" le readiness kha a damdawi ning a tih. Ei inthaklut zing. Umsawng pawl um an tih.

China factor

Doklam plateau le Siliguri Corridor a Chinese hai mi sawpdan kha ei hriet seng. China in Pakistan le an ramri kara Shaksgam valley a hai lampui tha tamtak a siem zing a. "Belt and Road" Initiative an sopui zing. India le kar ah missiles tha tha le sipai tamtak a thaklut zing a. An mi enthla zing bawk. Do ding chun a tunga Jammu and Kashmir le Ladakh tienga ei hang "inthaklut" ve a tul. India khawma lampui tha sawmsari pathum kum 2023 sung siem dingin hma a lak zing. An zo pha chu kilometre 295 a sei Jammu le Srinagar NH 44 khawm hadam thei tang a tih.

Militancy

Article 370 phawa hmanga Jammu and Kashmir delde zing chu ei hnungtawlna san a nih ti a mantu an pung zing a. Development, investment, unity, dan le dun, sakhuona, social practice, infrastructural development, military apparatus, law and order, citizenship le PRC thuah a kaikuongpa chu Article 370 kha a lo nih. Thaibo kha iengkima Jammu and Kashmir mipui le thalai hai hmasawnna ding a nih. Helpawl hai fakzawngna sukbo theina a ni nghal.

Article 370 thaibo dan

Article 370 hi Article 370(3) bawkin a thaibo dan a hril a. Thaibo ding chun Jammu and Kashmir Assembly thurawn lak a tul. Tutak hin Jammu and Kashmir hi President's Rule hnuoia um a ni a. Parliament hi an Assembly ang an tah. Parliament hlak BJP hratna hmun a nih. A lum lai taka hit ngam thuoitu ei nei ta leiin, ei vangnei.

"The Jammu and Kashmir" factor 

"Kashmir" ei ti hin ei lungril a ei inhuoptirsa hai a hnuoia khun ei hung tarlang

1. Jammu (Hindu 62%)

2. Kashmir (Hindu 2.5%)

3. Ladakh (Hindu 12%)

4. Siachen Glacier (India, Pakistan le China zuk hmu vawng theina vur ram, 6000 metres a insanga um India in kum 1984 a India ram dinga a i laklut tah).

5. POK (1947 a Jammu and Kashmir ram hmun nga a thea hmun hni Pakistan ram sunga la um hi).

6. Aksai Chin (1947 a Ladakh ram huomsunga mi anga ei i ngai kha a nih. Tuhin chu China ram in a awp tah).

Next move chu PoK le Akshai Chin Indian Union a laklut hi ni raw seh.

Thutawpna

Tun chu Jammu, Kashmir le Ladakh hai central sawrkarin direct in a enkawl ding an tah. India Constitution an constitution ni veng a ta. Central dan siem popo an thu le hla nilovin an fak ve ding an tah. Pakistan mi pasalin Kashmir ah nina hung nei thei ta nawng a ta. India flag khawm an flag ni ve tang a tih. An MLA hai khawm kum nga chau inlal ve tang an tih. India mi hrim hrimin Jammu and Kashmir ah ram le lo nei thei tang an tih. Hindu khawma MLA nei thei tang an ta. Chun hnam hnufuolbik haiin chanpuol a hranin nei thei bawk an tih.

"Thaibo effect" ding hisap vawng hnunga Article 370 thaibo a nih. Buoina um a tih. Amiruokchu, chu dodal dingin Armed Forces an inpei zing.

~Sabaasshhh India 👍👏

Ziektu:
Dada le Jojo-Pa,
Hmarkhawlien

5.8.2019
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