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India state thenkhat hai hamthatna Article 371, Article 371A-J, Inner Line Permit le BJP sawrkar

Thursday, August 8, 2019

/ Posted by Simon L Infimate
Thuhma

Jammu and Kashmir state hamthatna Article 370 sawrkarin a nuoibo ta leiin social media tamtakah state dang hai hamthatna Article 371, 371A a inthawka 371J khawm nuoibo thei zing a nih, tiin thu tam tak thedar in a um a. Northeast state a lem chu an vawrdar nasa hle.

Awleh, India ram sunga state hamtha zuol bik hai a hnuoia hin zuk tarlang phawt ei tih:

A. Northeast ah:

1. NAGALAND

Article 371A-

Social, religion, customary law, justice, land le resources kawnga Nagaland hamthatna a nih. Kum 1962 a Parliament in a i namdet a nih. Nagaland MLA haiin an approve phawt naw chun khawtlang thil, sakhuona, customary law, inhrem dan, ram le lo le a sunga ro hai popo inchawk le zawrna thua central in dan le dun a siem hai Nagaland ah zam ni naw nih. Chun Nagaland MLA hai dan le dun siem chu Nagaland sunga Tuensang Regional Council members hai phalna la lovin Tuensang Regional Council huomsungah zam thei ni naw nih.

"Ram le lo le a sunga ro hai popo" ti hin Nagaland sunga petroleum le natural gas khawm a huomsa tiin kum 2013 khan Oil exploration blocks sawmpakhat hai bids a lo thaw a. Petroleum Ministry le an inkhak ta a nih. Hi thu hi Ministry of Home Affairs ah chai a ni nghe nghe. Assam Geleky district le Nagaland Mokokchung ramri karah ONGC in mineral resources an buoipui zing. Jammu and Kashmir a Pakistan thangpui terrorist hai sawrkarin a hmu khawhri ang lawm lawm chun Naga hel hai a hmu khawhri nawh.

Kum 2015 a inthawk khan "Framework Agreement" sirsanin Naga Constitution, Naga flag, Naga sovereignty, Naga passport le Nagaland puotienga Naga del ram hai chungthuah NSCN (IM) le sawrkar inbiekna chu a la fe pei. Framework a hin Naga helpawl dang dang India Naga le Burma Naga delna ram khitkawpa Nagalim indin tum hai khawm huoilut zing an nih. Amiruokchu, varkakin inbiekna level chu "Governor level" ah an downgrade tah. A kakkhaw ding chu hunin hril a tih.

2. ASSAM

Article 371B-

Assam a tribal areas, tlangmi le hnam hnufuolbik hai hamthatna a nih. Kum 1969 a Parliament in a i lo namdet a nih. Assam sunga Autonomous State nei thei dan le Assam a tribal areas ah tribals hai ngei MLA an ni theina hamthatna a nih.

Assam sawrkarin Hill Areas Department (HAD) ti a hran tawpin NC Hills le Karbi Anglong tribal areas ta dingin a siem a. Inthanglienna le hmasawnna dinga khawl pawimawtak an tah. NCHAC le KAAC haiin an hlawkpui hle.

Kum 2016, 2017 le 2019 a MDC elections, MLA le MP elections a khan Autonomous State a hlangkai ding ti le Sixth Schedule sukhrat ding ti kha sopuiin BJP in hratna an lo chang ve tah. NCHADC le KAAC hai pahni hi khitkawpa Assam sunga sub-state demand-tu ASDC party an um bawk. Hratna hmangruo thaibo tum tukhawm ei um nawh.

Cachar, Karimganj le Hailakandi districts a tlangmi ta dingin Welfare for Plains Tribes Dept (WPT Dept) ti a siem bawk. BVHTDC hi WPT hnuoia mi a nih. HAD areas huomsunga cheng hlak WPT areas hieng Cachar, Karimgang le Hailakandi a lo zun pemlut ta hai khu Assam Plains Districts ah "Hill Tribes in Plains" ti designation a pek ve.

3. MANIPUR

Kum 1891 chen kha chu Manipur lalramin independence a lo ngai uluk hlak a. British hai an suokzo hun sawtnawte kha mania ngir tumin Manipur thuoitu haiin hma an lo lak bawk.

Saphai British India le Princely States in ditthlang theina insangtak an hmu khan, Manipur lalrama mipui le lal hai so indiktak kha a hriet an tak hle.

A. Thenkhatin independent Manipur state an nawr a.

B. Burma lo va zawm nuom an um bawk

C. Assam state zawma Indian Union a lut tum an um a.

D. Chun Cachar, Tripura, Lushai Hills le thangkawpa Purvanchal State buoipui an um bawk

E. Naga Hills, Lushai Hills le thangkawpa Frontier State indin tuma hmalatu an um.

F. Manipur Maharaja Bodhyachandra tienga thang zing an um.

G. Chun Manipur Maharaja ditlo pawl inzawmkhawm an um bawk.

Hamthatna pek a ni chun Manipur lalin India huomsunga lut kha a thlang ding thu India sawrkarin a lo hriet a. Instrument of Accession kha rem an lo tih. Manipur Maharaja hrietpuiin mipui thlang Interim Sawrkar indin a hung ni a. Amiruokchu, a mipui le interim sawrkar rawn hman lovin Maharaja chun Indian Union ah a lo inzieklut ta a nih. Interim sawrkar kha suktawp a hung nih. Kum 1950 khan Part C state a thuoilut a nih.

Manipur Merger Agreement (21.1.1949) chungthuah ngaidan inkal neknuk um ngei a tih. August 11, 1947 a Manipuri Maharaja lekha ziek kha a pawm lo um bawk an tih. Amiruokchu, Manipur kha kum 1956 khan Part C state a inthawk UT in hlangkai a hung ni a. 1972 khan state puitling a hlangkai a hung nih.

Article 371C-

Manipur ah Sixth Schedule zam a lo ni nawh. Amiruokchu, Manipur huomsunga tlangmi hai del ram popo chu Hill Areas tiin ko a lo ni hlak a. Hill Areas enkaitu dingin kum 1971 khan Hill Areas Committee (HAC) indin a nih.

A. HAC

Manipur a Hill Areas a cheng tlangmi hai hamthatna chu Article 371C hi a nih. Kum 1971 a Parliament in a i namdet a nih. Article 371C hamthatna dungzuiin Manipur Hill Areas le inzawma India President kuoma report petu ding chu Manipur Governor a ni a. Governor hi India sawrkar ruot a nih. Hill Areas enkawldan thuah Manipur Governor in Manipur state sawrkar direction a pek thei bawk. Hill Areas enkaitu ding Hill Areas Committee (HAC) um a ta, chu taka member chu Hill Area MLA hai ning an tih. Manipur Assembly in iengkimah HAC rawn a tih.

Kum 1973 khan HAC chu indin a nih. Members MLA sawmpakuo an um. Kum 1978 a inthawk khan HAC in HAC area popo chu Sixth Schedule hnuoia zam dingin rawtna a lo siem tah. Central sawrkar khawma Manipur ngaidan a lak tah. Chun Hill Areas huomsunga Sixth Schedule extension le inzawmin central in hrilfiena chite a la beisei a, chu chu Manipur sawrkarin a la thawn nawh.

B. District Councils

January 1, 1972 khan Manipur UT chu state puitlinga hlangkai a hung ni a. Manipur Hill Areas District Council Act ruok chu December 26, 1971 a siem a nih. Chu umzie chu Manipur statehood pieng hma daia Manipur ah District Councils an lo induong an tah. Amiruokchu, Manipur a District Councils hi Sixth Schedule le Fifth Schedule hnuoia mi an ni nawh. Parliament i siemfawm a ni a. Assembly in tul le tha a ti ang angin ramtin a phuokfawm zing. An pal phak phak inmai malama MDC politics sirsana mipui rawng bawltu an um. Ha bova sa ret tum an nih.

District Councils paruk hai Sixth Schedule a hlangkai dingin District Council thuoitu hai khawma central sawrkar an nawr zing. Amiruokchu, Sixth Schedule extension annawle UT nawr tuma MP le MLA candidate election a campaign tak tak-tu an la um nawh. Ladakh MP anga huoi Outer a elected MP an la um bawk nawh. Non-state actors chun an sopui zing.

Kum 2001 khan Pu W. Nipamacha in Hill Areas biel ah Sixth Schedule zam ding le ding naw thuah a amen thu central sawrkar a lo inhriettir a. Amiruokchu, "local adjustments le amendments" thaw met tul a tih, ti hai a lo hrilsa. Hi thu hi bawzuiin MHA in 7.5.2015 khan Manipur sawrkar lekha a hung thawn a. Revised proposal siema, "details of specific areas to be included in the Sixth Schedule", an rang thei anga inhriettir dingin Central sawrkar in Manipur sawrkar a hung nawr. Amiruokchu, politics infuk naw leiin Manipur a District Councils paruk le HAC hai karah inlaichinna tha a la um hri nawh.

4. MIZORAM

Article 371G-

Social, customary law, justice, land le resources kawnga Mizoram hamthatna a nih. Kum 1986 a Parliament in a i namdet a nih. Mizoram MLA haiin an approve phawt naw chun khawtlang thil, sakhuona, customary law, inhrem dan, ram le lo le a sunga ro hai popo inchawk le zawrna thua central in dan le dun a siem hai Mizoram ah zam ni naw nih.

Mizoram le Bangladesh le Burma ramri a ADC pathum hai inhnartu an pung zing.

5. ARUNACHAL PRADESH

Article 371H-

Arunachal Pradesh hamthatna a nih. Arunachal hi China in a state pakhat anga a i ngai a ni a. India le China ramri Aruunachal lai buoina a um zeu zeu leiin sawrkar na a ver hle a. India in China do ngamin Arunachal ah an "thaklut" zing. Chuleiin a ram mi Arunachal mipui support a pawimaw hle a. 371H Arunachal Pradesh hamthatna hi Nagaland le Mizoram hai hamthatna anga hlangkai tumin Arunachal BJP CM in hma a lak zing. An hamthatna hi central in a thaibo ngam ring a um nawh.

6. INNER LINE PERMIT SYSTEM

India Constitution in nuomna hmun hmuna fe theina fundamental right mitin a mi pek a. Amiruokchu, ST hai humhimna le public interest sirsanin hmun le khuo thenkhat ah mi popo lut phal an nawh.

Inner Line Permit, ILP hi Section 2 of East Bengal Frontier Regulation 1873 sirsana state sawrkarin a state huomsungah a zam thei a. Central approval a tul bawk.

A. Arunachal Pradesh

ILP hi temporary travel visitor pemit a ni a. India mi Arunachal puotienga cheng hai Arunachal ah ni sari cham theina permission a nih. Pawtsei thei a nih. Arunachal sunga sin nei hai sung hai ta dingin kumkhat chen chambang theina a nih. Assam le Nagaland border a lak thei a nih. Arunachal a chu travel permit chini a um a. Chuong hai chu ILP le PAP an nih. India mi Arunachal puotienga cheng Arunachal a lut ding haiin ILP an hmang a. Amiruokchu, foreign mi Arunachal a lut ding haiin PAP an hmang hlak. Chu chu MHA, etc. in an pek hlak. Vai haiin an sawisel a. China khawm a ning an tel. Assam mi tlangmi hmelput chi ILP an mi hni chuong nawh.

B. Mizoram

ILP hi temporary visitor pemit a ni a. Mizoram puotienga mi Mizoram ah ni sari cham theina permit a nih. Pawtsei thei a nih. Silchar a lak thei a nih. Lengpui Airport tlung chia ILP hmu thei dan a um bawk. Vai haiin an sawisel. Amiruokchu, Article 19(1) a nuomna hmun hmunah lut le fe theina right an i nei kha Article 19(2)(6) bawkin a restrict thei leiin, an bei a dawng hle. Constitution a "Basic structure" nuom nuoma zuk hem danglam thei ni nawk lo.

C. Nagaland

ILP hi temporary visitor pemit a ni a. Nagaland puotienga mi Nagalqnd ah ni sari cham theina permit a nih. Pawtsei thei a nih. Dimapur a lak thei a nih. Dimapur Airport tlung chia ILP hmu thei dan a um bawk. Vai haiin an sawisel a. Chun Gujarati, Rajasthani, Bihari, Bengali, Gorkhali hai ning a suktel hle.

Amiruokchu, Dimapur a lut dingin ILP nei a tul nawh. Commercial hub pawimaw bek bek a lo ni leiin, Dimapur hi a phut chun Sixth Schedule le Naga Hills huomsunga sie a lo ni nawh.

D. State dang hieng Manipur, Meghalaya le Tripura a khawm an sopui zing.

Manipur a chu kum 2018 khan ILP Bill pasi a ni a chu President in sui a kei nuom naw leiin, Manipur ah ILP zam a ni nawh.

ILP chungthu hi Supreme Court khawma a lo chei tah. 

B. Northeast puotienga state hamtha zuol bik hai:

1. Maharastra le Gujarat

Article 371-

Maharashtra le Gujarat huomsunga Vidharbha, Marathwada, Saurastra le Kutch area hai hamthatna a nih. 1950 a Constitution a kawp hrim a nih.

2. Andhra Pradesh le Telangana

Article 371D and E-

Employment le education kawnga Andhra Pradesh le Telangana hamthatna a nih. 1973 le 2014 a Parliament in a zieklut a nih.

3. Sikkim

Article 371F-

Sikkim hamthatna a nih. 1975 a Parliament in a zieklut a nih. Sikkim le India sawrkar kara ziekkham treaty khawlai Court a khawm khing thei ni naw nih. Treaty hrim hrim independent entity pahni hai kara ziek a ni hlak.

Sikkim hamthatna 371F hi sawrkarin a tuoibo chun Sikkim hi India a join hma-a a ngirhmun a bawk khan a ngir nawk ding a nih. Chu chu independent Sikkim a nih. Chuleiin BJP in Sikkim hamthatna a thaibo ngam ring a um nawh.

4. Goa

Article 371I-

Goa hamthatna a nih. Independence zo kum iemanichen kha Portuguese sawrkar i enkawlna hnuoia um a lo nih.

5. Karnataka le Hyderabad

Article 371J-

Hyderabad le Karnataka a ram hnufuol bik hai hamthatna a nih. Kum 2012 a Parliament in a i zieklut a nih.

Hmun danga ILP System:

State dang hieng Maharastra le Andaman Nicober Islands a hai khawm an sopui zing.

Kha hma met khawm khan Jammu and Kashmir huomsunga Leh district ah Inner Line Permit an lo hmang hlak a. Amiruokchu, an DC in kum 2014 khan a lo thaibo tah. Anachu, foreigners chu ILP bovin lut an la khap.

Anleh, state hamthatna hieng Article 371, Article 371A to Article 371J hai hi thaibo an ni ve ding am?

1. Article 370 (Jammu and Kashmir hamthatna) le Article 371 (Gujarat le Maharastra) hamthatna hi 1950 Constitution a zieklut hrim an ni a. Khang hun khawvel boruok le inhme in Jammu and Kashmir hamthatna hi an sang thei patawpa suksang a lo nih. A hrana constitution nei theina, a hrana flag nei nei theina, India dan zam lo, ram dang mi haiin Jammu and Kashmir ah ram le lo nei theilo ti hai kha an hamthatna lai a thangsa. Chuleiin Jammu and Kashmir state hin kha chen kha India le status angkhata inngai tawp a lo nih. Chun ram dang i thangpui terrorists chetna Indian state a ni a. Pakistan ramri chara um a ni bawk leiin Pakistan zawm tumtu an lo tam a. Kum tam riek-in-rapa chea, India sukhnungtawltu a lo nih. Chuelkhelah a ma inthanglienna ding chen a hamthatna hai khan a lo dal hlak a nih.

Amiruokchu, state dang hai hamthatna Article 371A a inthawka Article 371J hai hi Parliament in Article 368 hmanga constitutional provisions a i belsa hai an nih. Intra-state federal provisions ang mei mei chau an nih. India huomsunga India nina hmanga hmasawnna le invenghimna khawl an nih. "Central dan le dan hrim hrim hamthatna nei state assembly approval naw chun hamtha state ah zam ni naw nih", ti ang mei mei a chau an nih. Helpawl militants mi sukthlabartu an um zeu zeu a chu Jammu and Kashmir districts panga Srinagar, Anantnag, Baramullah, Kulgam le Pulwana a mipui angin Pakistan helpawl support-tu state dang hai ah an um nawh. Chun Jammu and Kashmir state hamthatna ang lawm lawma hamthatna insang pek an ni bawk nawh. "Unlawful activities" a ngirsuok zeu zeu hlak a chu "terrorists annawle fidayeen" chu state dangah an um nawh. Pakistan join tum le China a lut tum phet phet tuma strategic importance advantage anga sopui Jammu and Kashmir PDF Party politicians ang state danga an la bawk nawh. India ram huomsung ngeia hmasawn thei dan le pi le pu dan, customary law hmanga invenghim theina power ti hai bak state dang hamthatna hin a huom nawh.

2. Chun Parliament in Article 368 besana a i belsa Article 371, Article 371A to Article 371J hai hi BJP in thaibo tumin an Manifesto ah vawikhat khawm an la zieklut nawh. Thaibo tumin an la sopui bawk nawh.

Amiruokchu, Article 370 hi kum 1953 a inthawka BJP founder Pu Shayama Prasad Mukherjee in a i lo thaibo tum an tah. Khang hun lai khan Article 371 (Gujarat le Maharastra), Sixth Schedule hai ei lo zam dai tah. SC/ST List ti hai khawm ei lo nei tah. Article 371 le tlangmi hamthatna Sixth Schedule chungthua a hin SP Mukherjee le BJP haiin hrilchier a lo nei ngai nawh.

3. Article 371, Article 371A to 371J haia hamthatna hin a hrana constitution nei theina, Flag hran nei theina, PM a hrana nei theina, dual citizenship nei theina ti iengkhawm zepsa a ni nawh. Jammu and Kashmir hamthatna Article 370 a khan chu a um vawng. Kha lei khan BJP in an sawisel a, an thaibo pap tah.

4. Article 371, 371A to 371J hin hamthatna thil hieng mipui hmasawnna ding, India huomsunga ngei representation, social practice, customary law, justice, land le resources ti hai an sopui a. Chu chu BJP party thil tum le inzuol a nih.

5. Jammu and Kashmir hamthatna anga "internationalised" bek bek India state hamthatna Article 371, 371A to 371J huomsunga a um nawh. 1970s laia Naga, Mizo le Assamese helpawl hai international politics kha tuta hnung inkhel harsa ta hleng a tih. China, Bangladesh le Burma hai an var zo tah. Economic diplomacy hi khawvel in a sopui ta lem. Strategic reasons leia rambung le rambung "inkhel deu zing" ti hai bak buoipui chi taktak a um hmel ta nawh.

6. State dang hamthatna ei ti hai hi BJP ruled states annawle politics a an laihrui inzawmpui hai inlalna hieng Gujarat, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam, Goa, Sikkim, etc hai i fak zing an ni a. An vote hmuna belpui a nih. An sawrkar in a thlangtlingtu mipui suklungawilo tum naw ni hai. Local state sawrkar khawma risk la ngam naw nih.

7. State dang hai hamthatna hi a thaibo dan ding a hrana siem a ni nawh. Amiruokchu, thaibo phet phet tum chun a hnuoia ei tarlang pasari hai khu an inthuruol hle tul a tih:

A. President

B. Rajya Sabha

C. Lok Sabha

D. Central Government

E. Governor

F. State Assembly

G. State Government

Assam ah BJP in sawrkarna a chel a. Manipur ah BJP an lal a. Mizoram ah BJP ruolhai MNF in sawrkar an chel a. Nagaland ah BJP biek thei haiin sawrkar an chel bawk a. MLA ruolin an in candidate lai an state hamthatna thaibo dingin vote an zawng ngai nawh.

Local state a politicians in mipui hmakhuo an ngaituo sung le politics tha an inhnel sung tukhawma an state hamthatna thaibo dingin nawrlui thei naw ni hai. MLA vote tlingtu chu mipui an ni a. Vote tlinga um haiin an state hamthatna thaibo dingin hma an lak ngai nawh. Ruling le opposition in state hmakhuo an ngaipawimaw sung chu central in state hamthatna a thaibo ngam nawh.

Thutawpna

INDIA, BHARAT

Article 1

India ram, Bharat tia ei i ko hi state dang dang Inzawmkhawm a nih.

Article 3

Amiruokchu, India in a ram sunga um state dang dang hai ramri a siem danglam thei a. State pahni a khitkawp thei a, state ramri a sawidanglam thei a, state hming khawm state thu le hla la-in annawle la lovin a sukdanglam thei bawk.

Article 368

Chun Parliament sirsanin sawrkarin India Constitution a zieka um thumal hai a thleng theia, a belsa theia, a thaibo thei bawk. Amiruokchu, "Basic structure" a sawidanglam thei nawh.

Ei Constitution, Indian Constitution

India ram sunga state popo hi Indian Constitution Danbu Article 1 a inthawka Article 448 le ei Constitution in a i fensa 25 Parts le 12 Schedules hai hnuoia enkawl an nih.

Ei Constitution hi vel za le vawi thum ei lo siemtha ta a. Congress inlal lai vel tam ei lo siemtha. 124th Constitutional Amendment Bill 2019 khawm putlut a ni tah.

Positive discrimination hieng ST/SC/OBC/Women reservation, ILP system, India huomsunga ram le hnam hnufuolbik hai ta dinga special status ti hai hi constitutional, statutory le executive order hmanga siem tam tak a um a. Ei renga "mang angkhat" ei nei theina dinga sawrkarin hriemhrei a i zam hai an nih. Hieng ang democratic institutions le basic structures, mipui ei renga, a ruola ei leng hmunkhat theina ding thil, ei tlung hmunkhat theina ding thil, ei founding fathers hai remruotna mipui a tamlem hmakhuo ngaituo lova sawidanglam vawng chu "India thaibo tawp" ang ning a tih. Chu chu mipui i thlangtling roreltu le sawrkar haiin an hriet. Velnawka tling dinga in beisei tamlemna democractic system a cheng ei nih.

Aug 5, 2019 khan Union Home Minister Amit Shah chun hieng hin a lo hril:

"Mi tam takin Article 370 le 371 danglamna hi an hriet a. Mi tuin am a ni Central Sawrkarin Article 371 hi a nuoibo ding ti hmangin Northeast mi hai lai thudiklo thedar an tum a nih. Hi hi kan tiemna a nih, Article 371 hi thlak danglam ni naw nih, Northeast mipui an him".

Kum 1975-1977 a Emergency khan ei roreltu hai inchukna tha tak el a pek tah.

Chun MP le MLA hai term hi kum nga chau a nih.

-Dada le Jojo-pa,
Hmarkhawlien, Cachar, Assam

8.8.2019
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