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Ei Political Movement phak insang tak: Autonomuos District Chuh

Thursday, May 10, 2012

/ Published by Simon L Infimate
~Ngurrivung Hmar

British East India Company chu India ram ah, ei Lalpa Kum 1600 in an hung sumdawng ṭana, kum 1773 a loni chun Robert Clive inrawina hnuoia Bengal, Bihar le Orrisa ah thu neina anhung nei hman der anih. Chuhnung kum za (100) a hung invawi nawk meu chun British India sawrkar chun, India hmarsak(Assam)a tlangmihai chu phaimihai lakah an himna ding le phaimihai leh tlangmihai inkara buoina neu neu sawrkarin a pumpel theina ding le awpde an awlsam lemna  dingin Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation  chu  1873 khan siem a lo ni tah nih (BEFR-a inthawk hin Inner Line Permit/Regulation hmangin Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh le Nagaland-hai chu vawisun ni chen hin Vai, hnamdanghai a inthawkin humhim tlat an la nih). Hi taka inthawk hin ni rawi naw nîm, ei ni Zohnathlak-Hmarhai khawmhin British East India Company sawrkar chu Kumpinu Sawrkar ti a ei hriet ṭan ve chu. Scheduled Districts Act 1874 chun Assam tlângram, tribal hai chengna po po chu Schedule Area a puong a hung ni a. Schedule Area a chun sawrkar thuneitu hai phalna (Inner Line Permit) lak nawchun Phaimi (Plain mi)hai fepaw phal a ninawh a, Tlangmi (tribal) hai ruok chun phalna la kher lovin an nuom hun hun a Schedule Area/Inner Line pelin phai ram ah an fe thei.   Scheduled District-hai chu ram hnufuol (backward area/tract), hmun danghai le tekhi’n, rorelna pangngai nei theilona hmun an nih. Kum 1919 a Governor General-in-Council’in Backward Tracka a puonghai chu- 1. Garo Hills District, 2. Khasi and Jantia Hills (Shillong municipality ṭhangsalovin), 3. Mikir Hills, 4. North Cachar Hills, 5. Naga Hills, 6. Lushai Hills, 7. Sadiya Frontier Tract, 8. Balipara Frontier Tract le 9. Lakhimpur Frontier Tract-hai an nih.

Simon Commission report dungzuiin, Government of India Act, 1935 chun “Backward Tract” ti chu hlawm hni in ṭhe a hung ni a: - 1. Excluded Area (  i. Naga Hills District, ii.Lushai Hills District le iii. Cachar District a North Cachar Sub-division ) le 2. Partially Excluded Area (  i. Khasi le Jaintia Hills, ii. Garo Hills  le iii. Mikir Hills ) hai an nih.  Partially Excluded Area hai a chun  Assam Legislative Assembly ah aiaw(Representative) an tir ve thei a, Excluded Area aruokchun Assam Legislative Assembly ah aiaw an tir ve theinawh, Governor-in thuneina pumhlum a chel anih. Hieng Excluded le Partially Excluded Area a hai hin Governor rem ti na ṭhangnaw chun Assam sawrkar le British India sawrkarin dan siemin, an lek kaw thei nawh.

Kum 1947 khan India in, British a inthawkin zalenna a hmu a, ram in awpna danpui (Constitution)  chu buoipui/siem a hung ni a. Advisory Committee hran hran indin a ni a, chu committee-hai lai a pakhat- Advisory Committee on Tribal Area hnuoi a sub- committee pakhat- the North East Frontier (Assam) Tribal and Excluded Area Committee chu khanglai a Assam Prime Minister (India Constitution pawm a ni hma khan chu C.M. nilovin Prime Minister ti a nih) Gopinath Bordoloi chairman-na hnuoia din a ni a, a committee hming khawm an chairman hming chawiin Bordolai Committee ti a hriet lar a nih. Excluded le Partially Excluded Area a hai, District Council tin hruot suok vawng a, District Council ṭhuoitu/hotuhai inpawl pui a, an titi pui hnungin, Assam tlangram District-hai chu chihni a ṭhe in- Autonomous le Non-Autonomous a siem an rem ti ta a, chu an thil hmu chu Advisory Committee ah an thelut a, Advisory Committee chun, report chu 7 December, 1947 le 24 February, 1948 in hril tlang na an nei hnungin Drafting Committee ah an thelut a, Drafting Committee chun Dr. B.R. Ambedkar chairman na hnuoi ah February,13, 1948 a an en fel hnungin Constituent Assembly President kutah  21st February, 1948 ah inhlan a ni a, Constituent Assembly-in  tarik 5, 6 le 7 September 1949 a an hril tlang hnungin Indian Constitution Sixth Schedule hnuoi ah Article 244-na ah sie a lo ni ta a nih. Atira, Sixth Schedule hnuoi a Autonomous District-hai chu- (i) Khasi and Jaintia Hills district, (ii) Garo Hills district, (iii) Lushai Hills District, (iv) Naga Hills District, (v) Cachar District-a North Cachar Sub-Division le  (vi) Nowgong le Sibsagar Districta Mikir Hills (Karbi Anglong District) an nih. Nagahai ruokchun Autonoumous District hi an pawmnaw a, India independent hma a, Independent an puong ang hrimin, India lak ah independent an suol a, chuleiin vawisun chen hin Naga buoina ching fel a la ni naw anih. Khasi, Jaintia le Garo-hai chengna state puitling, Meghalaya a hlangkai a ni hnung khawmin an state-ah autonomous District anni puol sengin an la nei zing tho anih. Lushai Hills District chu state puitling, Mizoram hungniin, a state sunga Mara, Lai le Chakma-haiin anni puol sengin Autonomous District an nei seng bawk.

Vawisun a, Indian Constitution, Sixth Schedule hnuoia Autonomous District- hai chu- 1. Bodoland Territorial Council , 2. Karbi Anglong ADC (Autonomous District Council),  3. Dima Hasao (North Cachar Hills) ADC,  4. Garo Hills ADC,  5. Jaintia Hills ADC,  6.  Khasi Hills ADC,  7. Chakma ADC,  8. Lai ADC.  9. Mara ADC le 10. Tripura Tribal Areas ADC-hai an nih.

Autonomous District -hai hi an lien dan le an thunei thei chen khawm an ang naw tawl hle a, Chakma Autonomous District Council chun members 13 chau a nei laiin Bodo Land Territorial Council ruok chun members 46 lai neiin, Mizoram nekin Legislative member 6 (paruk) laiin a nei tam lem anih.

Autonomous District Council chun dan fel fai tak neiin, kum nga sung a dingin inthlangna nei a ni hlak. ADC member tam le tlawm chu ADC lien dan/ mipui tamdanah annghat anih, amiruokchu, abîka siem Bodo Land Territorial Council tiem lovin member sawmthum (30) nekin an tam thei nawh. State sawrkar ang hin rorelna khawl a nei a, chu rorelna khawl cheltu ding a thlangtlinghai chu District Council Member an nih. State sawrkar a Cabinet ang deu hin ADC hin Executive Committee umin, a thuneitu tak chu Chief Executive Member (CEM) a ni a, a member danghai chu CEM remtipuina’n Council Member lai a mi Governor in a ruot Executive Members (EM) an nih.

Sixth Schedule hnuoia Autonomous District Council-hai chun Primary School chena mani piengpui ṭawng hmanga inchuk theina an nei a, Damdawiin (dispensaries), Bazar, nga vaina ding a tui dîl siem, lamlien le tuilam (water ways), sawrkar Reserved Forest ti lova in hmun pek theina, lo le huon, lo/leilet siemna dinga tui lam siem, ran vaina le fak zawngna chi hran hran, hriselna tieng, ro inhluo sawng chungchang, nuhmei pasal innei le inmâk thu ah, pi le pu dan (hnam dan) chungchang le thil dang dang ahai India danpuiin thuneina a pek anih. District Council hin Village Court le District Council Court a nei a. District Council Court thu thlukna lem hi chu High Court le Supreme Court a chau a khing let thei anih. Sum tieng pang a chun ram, in hmun, dawr, hmun dang a in thawk a thuomhnaw lak lut man le thil dang dang a, Constitution-in thuneina a pek ahai sie(tax)  a lakkhawn thei anih. Hienghai bak a hin District Council sum hnar, an pawisa hmuna  tak chu Sawrkar tlungpui a inthawka state sawrkar fe tlengin an dawng anih, tu lem hin chu, Mizoram a Autonomous District Council- hai chun State Sawrkar nawr buoi ngai lovin, Second Administrative Reform Article 46. (Para 5.15.5.5) (a) le (b) dungzuiin Sawrkar laipui a inthawkin sum (Direct Funding) an dawng ding an tah.

Hmarnauhai hin, Chanchinṭha ei dawng a inthawkin thiemna, varnahai hung inchukin, Politics ei hung hmel hriet a, mani ngei a ram nei inhawkna ei hung nei a Hmar National Congress, Hmar National Union, Mizoram Hmar Association, Hmar People Convention-hai a hung pieng a. May 16, 1989 a hung ni  meu khan chu Hmar People Convention in Autonomous District Mizoramah a hnina (demand) leiin Hmar khawvel po po chu a hung deng suok anih, hi nihin, ei hnam Pasalṭhahai chu Moniarkhala an umlaiin M.A.P. ha’n an zu kap, ei hnam sipai Lalhuoplien le Lienhmingthang-hai chun an hringna hlutak an lo inhlan tah anih, hi leihin ei hnam ṭhuoituhai chun hi ni, May Ni Sawmleparuk hi Hnam Pasalṭha Ni (Martyr day) ti a puongin, vawisun chen hin ei Hnam Pasalṭha, Ram le Hnam tadinga hringna hlutak lo inhlan tahai po po chawimawina ding le hrietzingna dingin ei inser hlak anih. Hi Movement hi, Mizoram a hmarhai chauvin ei tuor naw a, hmuntin a Hmarnau Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya le khawvel hmun dang dang a chenghai khawmin ei tuor vawng ni’n an lang, a ṭhenin ei  pasalhai ei sûn a, a ṭhenin ei nu, ei pa hai ei sûn a, a ṭhenin ei nauhai ei sûn a, a ṭhen lungril le taksa a ruol ban lovin  ei um pha bawk anih. Ei tuorna ngaituo chun vawisun a ei ngirhmun (Sinlung Hills Divelopment Council) hi chu dit khawp a um naw hle’n an lang. SHDC hlak hi interim period ringawtin hun an hmangzova, Mizoram sawrkar in an nuom nuom chairman an in nitir ringawt el a ni hi. Kum 1994 a HPC le Mizoram sawrkar inremna a khawm khan HPC ngirsantak Autonomous District chun hmun a hluo naw vâng a nih, an inremna, Memorandum of Settlement ah point tawpnatak dawta, Thildangdang (Others Matters) ti ah Article 6.1 na a Mizoram Sawrkarin HPC’n Autonomous District a demand hi mawi le ṭha a ti thu an ziekve ṭawk anih.

Vawisunni chena, ei Hnam Pasalṭhahai thisen man hlutak hi a ni dânding ang tak, a ninawna san hi iem ni’ng a ta aw? Ei inthuruolnaw lei amanih, mani ṭanghma ei siel lei amanih, mani hnam/ṭawng ei inzapui lei amanih, demand area a Hmarhai hin sawrkar ah ei nawrnaw lei amanih, Lalpa, hnuoi le van siemtu lung ei suk awinaw lei amanih? Ngaituo ve ta!
Tarik: 14th May,2011

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