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MANIPUR HMAR POLITICS: BOYCOTT, HMAR DISTRICT LE DEMOCRATS (1946-2019)

Friday, December 20, 2019

/ Posted by Simon L Infimate
1. THUHMATHUOI

Kum 1991 a India sawrkar record dungzui chun Manipur tlangmi population chu:

(a). Naga 3,36,161

(b). Thadou Kuki 1,21,994

(c). Zomi 93,305*

(*Paite, Mate, Vaiphei, Zou, Thangkhal, Simte, etc.)

(d). Hmar 35,767

(e). Kom 13,004

(f). Gangte 12,793

(g). Mizo 8,240

(h). Ralte 250

Tribe list a thang thenkhat a hnuoia hin ei hung tarlang sa:

(a). Paite 44,861

(b). Vaiphei 27,791

(c). Zou 19,112

(d). Teddim Chin NA

(e). Simte 7,150

Kum 1991 khan India ah Hmar tawng hmang 78,000 bawr ei nih. Chu taka 35,000 bawr chu Manipur a cheng hai ei nih.

Inchukna tieng, sakhuona, fak le dawng kawngah Hmar intodel tamna tak chu Manipur a nih. Tlawmngaina, pahnam, tawng le literary thil humhalna kawngah Hmar hnawt phak an um nawh. HSA, HYA, Hmar Inpui, HCLF le KTP detna hmun a nih.

National Highway Bandh, Naga Tax, Kuki Fund, AFSPA, Zoland Payment, Lamka District, Anti-Tribal Bills, ILP, Zomi link language, CAB, Mizoism, ZORO Movement, Chin Nation, India Sawrkar Act East Policy le Hmarram ecosystem kara cheng ei ni a. Amiruokchu, politics ah Independent Manipur, Kangpokpi, Southern Nagalim, Kuki State, Autonomous Hill State (AHS) le Zohnathlak political environment in a min huolkhum.

Kum 2008 khan Manipur a tlangram sipai Naga tilo povin designated camp ah silai an lo intung tah. Kum 2016 khan Kuki-Hmar-Zomi-Zo-Komrem UG Groups hawn hni United People's Front (UPF) le Kuki National Organisation (KNO) sirsanin political dialogue ah ei thang ve a. Kum 2017 a inthawk khan United Naga Council, Kuki Inpi, Thadou Inpi le Zomi Council hai leh UPF political objective ei lo zui ve tah. KNO kawp ei um bawk.

"Kuki State" annawle "Zoland" annawle "Chin Nation" annawle Sixth Schedule hnuoia "Hmar Territorial Council" annawle "Greater Mizoram" annawle India Constitution hnuoia "Hmarland" boruok hnawtin ei tha le hun tha a tamlem a fak zing.

Amiruokchu, Tuivai biel deltu, Tipaimukh dam bawlna hmun neitu, petrol, diesel le busuongna gas tamtak deldetu, Tuiruong dung a cheng, National Highway 150 hmun thuma the a hmun khat enkawltu, Tuithaphai deltu, Jiribam-Tipaimukh Road (JT Road) controltu le Mizoram-Manipur state ta dinga cheap labour force le economic base pawimaw em em, Manipur MLA biel pathum Thanlon, CCP le Saikawt a "deciding factor", Tipaimukh MLA biel pakhat nei, "strategic location" a cheng, 1968 a Holy Bible nei tah, Hmar district movement laia front leader lo ni hlak le Pathien hring nei Manipur a Hmar hnam hai hi iengleia 1967-1972 laia ang khan ei pawimaw ding angin Manipur Hills Districts politics ah ei pawimaw thei ta naw mani aw?

Constitutional Sixth Schedule hnuoia ADC hmu a lo intak deu el thei. Amiruokchu, khang chena ei politics khan iengleia Manipur Hmar hai politically-in a mi lo thuoidawk hne naw mani aw? Tawng humhal le ram le hnam politics ei inhnik vei leh! Iengleia Manipur state act hnuoia statutory satellite Hmar Autonomous Council bek ei la nei thei naw zing am? Iengleia executive body ang mei mei hieng Hmar Development Council annawle Shan Hill Council type political apparatus khawm ei nawrdawk thei naw mana?

Khieng zawna hai dawnna khi in lo zawng ve hlak am chu? India sawrkar le Naga hai Framework Agreement 2015 le inzawma ei political hmathlir iem a ni? Ei political road ahead iem a ni?

2. POLITICAL PROCESS

Tuchena Manipur a Hmar in politics ei lo inhnel ta hai zuk tarlang ei tih:

(A). MLA Politics

1947 Manipur State Constitution sirsanin Manipur Assembly members 53 a 18 hai kha Manipur Hill districts aiawtu an lo nih. Chu hai chu Manipur a roreltu zaah 34% an nih. Manipur Part C state a hlangkai a ni khan Chief Commissioner (CC) hnuoia sie a nih. Council of Advisors a thlang le Chief Commissioner in a i hmang panga laia pahni hai kha Hill districts aiawtu an nih. Chu umzie chu khang hun lai khan Manipur a roreltu zaah 40% chu Hills Districts a mi an nih.

Manipur UT Act 1963 in Chief Commissioner thangpuitu ding Council of Ministers 30 MLA seats a siem khan, Hill Standing Committee (HSC) indin a nih. Kum 1967 khan HNU le PNC thangkawpin Churachandpur MLA bielah Pu Rokung Hmar ei lo thlangtling. HNU in Thanlon MLA bielah Pu M. Goukhenpau a lo support.

Amiruokchu, kum 1972 a Manipur assembly seats sawmruk a sukpung a ni khan, Hill districts huomsung chu MLA seats sawmhni chauvin ziek dawk a hung nih. Tipaimukh MLA biel a pieng. Hi kum a inthawk hin Manipur state rorelna khawl ah Hill districts aiawtu le roreltu chu Manipur pumpui rorelna khawl cheltu laia 33% chau a hung ni tah.

Chuleiin state political decision making thuah Manipur valley MLAs hai chu Assembly ah 2/3rd majority (66%) an hung ni tah.

Manipur Valley MLA chu 40. Hill Districts a MLA ruok chu 20 chau an nih. Chuong 20 MLA hai chu HAC in a khittel. Manipur a development fund le welfare scheme zaah sawmruk paruk chu valley districts a lut hlak a nih.

HAC hi Manipur rorelna sunga Hills mipui aiawtu a nih. Amiruokchu, HAC sunga MLA sawmhni hai hi group thum-Naga, Kuki le Zomi/Hmar bloc in an inthe hlak. An inremnawna chunga nga man tum valley MLA an um hlak. Sawrkarin HAC member hai a hlem a hlem hlak. Kum 2016 a Three Anti-Tribal Bill kha ei hriet seng.

A lienzawng chun valley districts po hi a chien (Manipur 15% bawr chau a nih). Anachu mihriem umzat inkhina hisap chun Hill districts a cheng ei tlawm lem (Manipur mipui 10% bawr chau Hills ah ei um).

Hills Districts le Valley Districts hai karah political le development thilah inremnawna lien tak el a um. Chu chu "political betrayal" ei tih.

Manipur Hill MLA sawmhni hai chu hieng ang hin zuk the tum ei tih:

(a). Naga MLA 10

(b). Kuki MLA 6

(c). Zomi MLA 3

(Manipur a sawrkarna cheltu BJP ticket a MLA tling vawng an nih: CCP-Pu Hangkhanlian, Thanlon-Pu Vungzagin le Singngat-Pu Ginsuanhau).

(d). Hmar MLA 1 (Congress ticket a thlangtling selkaltu pawl a thangpui Pu Chaltonlien Amo).

(B). Hill Area Committee Politics:

NE Reorganisation Act 1971 hnuoiah India Parliament in Manipur Hill Areas ta dingin power insangtak el 371-C chu India Constitution ah a lo zepsa a. Chu chu besanin India President in Hill Areas Committee (HAC) Order 1972 khan a lo insuo.

HAC order dungzui chun Manipur ah HAC indin a hung ni a. HAC hi legislation, scheduled matters sawmpathum le executive action thua thuneina insangtak pek a nih. Hill districts sunga ram le tui, lal le headman nina, development planning le social customs le inheritance chungthu ah HAC in thuneina insangtak a nei. Money bill tilo Hill Areas le inzawma assembly sunga bill putlut popovah Manipur Assembly in HAC a rawn hlak.

Manipur state sunga Hill Areas hi Manipur Governor in a enkawl a. Governor in India President kuoma an report hlak. Manipur Assembly hnuoia HAC in Governor a thangpui a. Hill Areas le inzawmin President in Manipur state sawrkar a zuk direct thei. Amiruokchu, kum 2005 laia inthawk khan Rules of Procedures and Conduct of Business hmangin HAC le inzawma Governor thuneina chu "Manipur Assembly" in a lak tah.

HAC thuneina insang legislation khawm thaibo a lo nih. Tuhin valley a "Plain Areas" thenkhat "Hill Districts" sunga nawrrlut phet phet tuma hmalatu an um zing. HAC hi Hill MLA hai committee body a nih. Local body annawle ADC puitling ang a ni nawh. Manipur Assembly in HAC a sirde hlak. A hnawchep naw le a suknawmnat hlak.

Chuleiin KNO le UPF in HAC hi inhnemna thei an nawh an lo tih. Kuki State (KNO) le Autonomous Hill State (UPF) a hung inri tan a nih. Meitei, Naga le Kuki hai politics kara cheng hai ei var ve a tul.

(C). Churachandpur ADC Politics:

India Parliament in a pass Manipur (Hill Areas) District Councils Act 1971 sirsanin Manipur UT hnuoia Hill Districts paruk ah ADC paruk indin an nih. ADC paruk hai inenkawl dan le dun ruok chu Manipur State Assembly in kum 1972 khan Manipur (Hills Areas) District Council Rules a lo induong.

Manipur sunga MDC biel 144 ah Naga, Kuki, Hmar, Paite, etc. hai an cheng. Hmar hai khawm CCP ADC sunga biel pali hieng Parbung, Vangai, Senvawn le Saikawt ah ei tling hlak. Biel dang pali ah tling theina factors ei nei hun a um.

ADC puitling a ni naw leiin Manipur state sawrkar le DC in CCP ADC hnuoia thuneina insangtak an nei a. Members in pocket money chite te an hmu. Mipui sem ding an nei nawh. ADC member a tamlem chu local MLA meitehem an nih. Sa suong hminsa ha bova ret tum ang an nih.

Tuhin Panchayati Raj le Urban Local Bodies sirsana sum laklut dan ngaituo mek a nih. CCP district chun Manipur Municipality Act 1988 a lo hnawl tah.

(D). Village Chieftainship Politics:

Meitei Ningthou kha Kangpokpi (Manipur Valley) ah an lal hun sung popo khan tuta Manipur a Hill Districts sung a khuo a tamlem ah Kuki an lo inlal a. Kum 1892 a Saphai an hung lut tum khan, Meitei haiin an lo do. Kuki haiin kum 1917 khan Saphai an lo do ve.

Kum 1949 khan Meitei Ningthou chu India ah a lut a. Amiruokchu, Kuki lal hai Manipur administration hnuoia an um hi a la sawt nawh. Khuo khat lal nina hlip theina dan kum 1967 khan Manipur sawrkarin assembly ah a lo putlut a. Pass a lo nih. Hi dan sirsan hin sawrkarin khuo lal annawle chief hai chu compensation pein an lal ram lak a lo tum a. Ram lak thei popo Hill Areas Committee kuoma pek a lo tum. Amiruokchu, kha dan kha sukpuitling thei ding chun Governor in a sign a tul. A la sign nawh.

Tipaimukh Power Project hlawkpui ding hai laia thang ei nih. Tipaimukh dam bawlna le inzawma compensation hmu ding chun ram lekha indiktak nei a tul a. Lal hlui hai kuoma compensation pek ding chun an lalram khuo lienzie le khuo satdawk ah in le mihriem umzat, an hming le number sawrkar ah peklut a tul.

Lalram tlanhmang san tah, khuo nei ta lo lan lal zing anga insal haiinih Hills Districts ah chieftainship thaibo an nuom nawh. Amiruokchu, lalram nei lova lalram lekha keidawk awlna rama um ei nih. Lal i tlanhmang san, lal nei ta lo VA system khawtlang thenkhat an buoi zing. Parbung, Lungthulien, Senvon, etc. hai hi Hmar khuo an nih. Hill districts Churachandpur, Sadar Hills, Chandel, Ukhrul, Senapati le Tamenglong a khuo tamtakah a cheng talo lal hlui in legal land patta an la kawl a. Khawtlang mipui a sukchiai hle.

A hmuna inlal mang silova ram lekha tehlem sirsana compensation claim tum an tam. Hi kawnga hin UNC, Kuki Inpi, Thadou Inpi, Zomi Council le Hmar Inpui haiin kilkhatah ngaidan an nei seng. Chieftainship hi Tipaimukh dam le oil le gas compensation thu el a ni nawh. Hills districts sunga khawtlang le Village Authority iemanizat le an ram patta a hnengsa. KNO le UPF political vision in chieftainship chungthu hi uluk taka a ennawn a tul.

(E). Village Authority Politics:

Manipur ram 22,000 sq km a 1,843 sq km chu valley huomsunga mi a nih. A bak po hi Manipur Hill districts in a huom. Manipur mipui zaah 60% valley ah an cheng. Valley a mipui zaah 65% chu Meitei tawng hmang an nih. Hill districts ah Naga le Kuki an tam tak.

Kum 1947 a inthawka 1955 chen kha Manipur Hills Districts ah Village Council, Circle Authority le Hill Bench ei lo nei hlak a. Village Authority system nei hma po khan Circle Authority of Village Authorities le Hill Bench of Circle Authorities le Chief Court of Manipur haiin ro an lo rel hlak.

Manipur (Village Authorities) Act 1956 sirsanin Manipur Hill Districts ah Village Authority 725 indin an nih. Sawrkara tax sung thei In sawmhni hai chengna khuo chu kum thum term nei Village Authority in enkawl a. VA member chu khawtlang mipuiin an thlang. VA members laia pakhat VA Chairman a nih. VA member laia mi pahni neka tam Village Court an nih. Khuo lal VA member a ni ve chun Village Court ah thuneina pek a nih. Village Court in criminal le civil power popo a nei a. Law and order khawm a buoipui thei.

Amiruokchu, VA Court thurel popo Manipuri tawnga ziek intak ei tih. VA haiin an tawng bak an hmang thei nawh. Hi lei hin District Court in VA thurel tamtak a hnawl zing. Tuhin appeals thawtu an tam. VA hai hi beneficiary list siemtu le sawrkar scheme hmutu ding hming list thakluttu chauva hmang an ni nawh. Khawtlang development work le planning tieng BDO le thawtlangtu an nih. Tipaimukh Dam le Oil le Natural Gas exploration thua NoC petu hriemhrei laia pawimaw em em an nih.

Gaon Panchayat besana sawrkar fund le welfare scheme huoilut dan ngaituo mek a nih. Kuki state le Zoland demand area huomsung ah Meitei, Bihari, Bengali, Punjabi, Nepali le Tamil an um ve. Tamil, Marwari le Punjabi hai hi capitalist commerce thiem an nih. Meitei le inel an nih. Bengali tawng hmang hai hin sin thaw thei lo an nei nawh. Mistiri, Pani Puri zawr, Alu Muri dawr, thingpui dawr, aithing karbar, sam met, thuomhnaw zawr, busimaal dawr, ek khur cho le cement putlut an rin nawh. An um thei vawng. An adaptable. Vawksa le uisa fa lovin vawksa fa le ui fa hai lai an um rin chuong nawh. Amiruokchu, Manipuri hai hi marginal traders an nih. Thaw rin an hau. Business a dingin ei peirei nawh. Ei short term.

Moreh trade le commerce innghatna pawimawtak chu Manipur puotienga inthawka hung lut hai an nih. Kuki haiin symbiosis relationship an nei pui.

Moreh biel, "Lamka" area, Senapati, Ukhrul le Tamenglong ADC area sunga khuo 25% bawr chu mixed population an nih. KNO le UPF sunga armed group haiin trade centre le Golden Triangle hi an uksak hle. VA matters an ngaiven bawk. An objective innghatna khawm a nih. Tawng humhal nekin hnam hum tieng pang ei la thlur tawl seng.

(F). "Greater Mizoram" Politics

Tawng humhal le ram le hnam politics inhnik hai ei salaam.

Kum 1946 a inthawka 1952 chen kha Mizo Union boruok in Manipur Hmar hai a mi lo nuoivir a. Dr Thanglung a rawiin Mizoism ei lo buoipui a. Senvon, Lungthulien, Parbung, Taithu le khuo dang danga lal le VA members tamtakin Mizo Union lo support naw hai sien khawm mipui a telpui lungril fentu chu Unionists hai an nih. House tax fatu khuo tamtak lal hai, Manipur State Maharaja le a sawrkar thuoitu lu a sukhai hle. Manipur a election hmasatak mipuiin ei boycott khan Lal PB Singh in Parbung a hung sir pha ta a nih.

Amiruokchu, pansak haiin an mi varkhal a. Paite, Gangte, Simte, Vaiphei le Zou haiin Khul Union an indin a. Maharaja PB Singh a dittu Sandam Hmar chu Pansak haiin an hneban ta a nih. An thuoitu Tualchin Paite chu kum 1948 khan Senvon biel aiawtu dingin Manipur sawrkar ah an lo thlangtling. Khang hun lai khan Manipur Parliament in 53 members a lo nei a. Chu taka 18 members chu Hills Districts aiawtu an nih.

Thanlon ah LP school le Dispensary an putlut a. Amiruokchu, Manipur election ei boycott leiin Pu L. Tawna, Lalsungkim (Parbung), Khuongsunlien (Khawmawi), Thanga (Tuiring) le Hmunthang (Saidan) haiin jail bang an baw pha a. Tawna lem chu Lungthulien revenue biel enkaitu dingin an lo huoilut tah.

Kum 1952 a Lushai Hills District ah Mizo Union thuoitu haiin Manipur Hmar areas an zieklut chuong nawh. Kum 1949 a Pu PB Singh ei lo deusaw kha ei insir hle. Burma, Bangladesh le Northeast a Mizo ta dinga Sovereign Greater Mizoram khekdawktu MNF khawma a thil tum tak theinghil rakin Mizoram statehood ah Mizo hai a lutpui ve.

Kum 1967 khan Hmar National Union (HNU) le Paite National Union (PNC) thangkawpin Churachandpur MLA bielah Pu Lalrokung Hmar chu 3558 votes in ei lo thlangtling. A khing pasari laia hmu rawn taktu chu Pu Semkhupao a nih. 2654 votes a hmu. Pu Rokung Hmar a MLA tling dan an dik nawh tiin hnam dang haiin Court ah an khing a. An mi varkhal. HNU in Thanlon MLA bielah Pu M. Goukhenpau (Independent) a support a. Ei suktling.

Amiruokchu, kum 1972 a Tipaimukh MLA biel a pieng khan CCP a Hmar dominance chu Tipaimukh biel tieng hnawlut a nih. Vawisun ni chen hin CCP le Thanlon MLA biel ah Hmar ei tling thei ta nawh. Tuhin Paite le Gangte hai hi Zomi Council hnuoia um an nih.

Mizoram a khawm hnam dangin an mi varkhal. Kum 1952 a inthawka 1972 sunga Mizo Autonomous District Council (MDC) hnuoia khan Pawi-Lakher Regional Council (PLRC) an lo nei a. Hmar in MDC hnuoia Hmar Regional Council ei nei nawh.

Pawi le Lakher in PLRC an lo hlawkpui em em. Chakma haiin Pawi le Lakher hai regional politics an copy a. Sawtnawten Pawi le Lakher hai hriemhrei inhnar dan an hung thiem a. An inchupui. Chite an sem ve ta a nih. Boruok inlumletin a fen tawla. Kum 1972 khan Mizoram UT a pieng thut khan Pawi, Lakher le Chakma haiin ADC an fendawk seng a nih.

Tuhin Mizoram ah UT demand pawl an um tah. An biel del saw hausa naw sien khawm, an umna saw a strategic bek bek leiin ngaisak lo theilo Burma Bangladesh India ramri saw MHA, Centre sawrkar chun a ngaiveng hle. Chakma hai ADC lem hi chu Mizoram UT boruokin a hung fendawk liu liu a nih. Vaihnungin Mizoram ah hlingin a hung inchang ta de a chu!

Kum tamtak Mizo Union in ei lungril a lo hne a. Manipur a Hmar in a ra ei fak nawh. Mizoram a HPC movement (1988-1994) a khan ei lungril, tha le zung popo ei lo seng. Sawrkar kut tuortu haiin Manipur le Assam a nih bel. Vawisun ni chen hin ei hnam sipai hai hi Manipur based UG an la tih.

Kum 1997 khan Kuki-Zomi kara hnam buoina sukfel dingin Mizo Peace Mission Pu C. Chawngkunga thuoina hnuoia indin chun Churachandpur an hung lut a. Mata Dam ah Kuki le Paite hnam le KNF(P) le ZRA thuoitu karah inremna an hung siem. Ei lawmpui hle.

Nikhat lai el khawm khan Kuki UG Groups pahni UPF le KNO thuoitu haiin Mizoram CM an inhmupui. Manipur le Mizoram ramri le Hill Districts a cheng Zohnathlak hai hamthatna ding dap zing a nih.

Amiruokchu, Mizo Union vanglai ang khan Mizo ti hin Manipur a Hmar hai politically in a sukhmin hne ta nawh. Manipur MNF Sub-HQ le Manipur MPC zui nuomlo ei hung punga. Mizoram ah Hmarram a hung inri khan lungril popovin ei lo support.

Tawng humhal (language) le ram (land) le hnam (identity) politics khitkawpa Hmar politics inhnel thei a nih. HPC movement laia ei thil thil theinghil ei nuom hai theinghil dingin hun la tul a tih.

Amiruokchu, hmun dang le state dangah buoina ei tuok chang, Mizoram hi Hmar haiin ngam taka ei van pemlut theina hmun a ni ve. Kum 1959-1960 laia Kuki-Hmar indo, kum 2003 a Dimasa-Hmar hnam buoina, kum 2006 a Lungthulien incident le Rengkai Encounter hai kha ei theinghil thei nawh.

Thenkhatin Naga-Meitei boruok thalo ei ram le hnam politics ah an hung fenlut a. Chu rasuok leia hringna chantu ei nih. Harsatna leia fak le dawn zawng dinga Mizoram a van pemlut ei pung zing. Unexpensive Hmar labour force ei supply zing bawk. "Manipur Hmar Idea" bovin SHDC politics a la suokdawk ngam nawh. Political MNF in chu chu a hriet. Kum 2018 khan SHC a pieng. SHC hi Manipur Hmar haiin inhnarna chang ei hung hriet tah. Tipaimukh Power Project hlawkpui ding hai laia thang ei nih.

3. INDIA SAWRKAR "ACT EAST" POLICY LE MANIPUR HILLS

India Sawrkar Act East Policy leia Manipur Hill Districts mipui hai hamthat theina thenkhat:

IMT Project

Kum 2002 a inthawk khan India sawrkar chun India Myanmar Thailand (IMT) Trilaterial Road a ngaipawimaw tan a. Hi kum a inthawk hin Naga Peace Talks khawm nguk taka ngaiven tan a nih. IMT Asian Highway Network (AHN) hi 1,360 km a sei a nih. IMT Road a 80 km chu Imphal le Moreh kara lampui hi a ni a. Kohima le Imphal kara lampui chu Senapati Naga biel hnuoia mi a nih. Imphal le Moreh kara lampui ruok chu Kuki hai inlalna biel huomsunga um a nih. KNO helpawl hai hratna biel a nih. Chuleiin Act East Policy hnuoia Trilateral Road puitlingna ding chun Manipur Naga le Kuki hai an pawimaw bek bek a nih.

India-Myanmar-Thailand (IMT) Project hnuoia 579 km a sei Imphal le Mandalay (Myanmar) Road chu tuhin NHAI in a siem zing. IMT hi China hai "Belt and Road Project" ei dawnletna a nih. ASEAN khawmuolpui ei va daksuok"theina a ni nghal. China Bazaar ei va lut theina a ni bawk. Chuleiin "Look East Policy" hmangin Congress sawrkar le New Delhi in kum 1991 a inthawka an lo buoipui ta reng a nih.

KMMTP

Kum 2009 a inthawk khan sawrkarin Kolkata seaport le Mizoram chu Myanmar a Sittwe seaport (Rakhen state) le Paletwa (Chin state) hmangin a sukmat tum a. Chuleiin Zokhawthar (Mizoram) le Teddim (Burma) kara lampui siemthat a tum a nih. Imphal-Teddim Road a hung pawimaw ta hle ding a nih. Hi project hi Kaladan Multi Modal Transport Project (KMMTP) an tih. Thailand-Moreh-Imphal-Sinzawl-Ngopa NH in Kaladan Road hi a zawm pha chu Guite Road (Sinzawl le Ngopa) biela Zomi hnam haiin an tangkai pui hle ding a nih. NH 150 Bukpi Sinzawl Bypass le inzawma ei hnamin ei hlawkpui thei dan ngaituo vat tul a tih. Mizoram a Sialkal Range Development Council neitu Paite hai hamthatna ding a pung pei tah. Myanmar le India border laia Paite khuo Chiahpui khuo le Aizawl hi rail lamin an zam vat ding a nih. Chu huna chun Act East Policy hi India le Myanmar a Zomi le Teddim Chin hnamin an tangkai pui ding a nih. An ram le hnam khawvelin hrietfu tang a ta. An tawng hum thei bawk an tih.

OIL LE GAS

Manipur Hill Districts a Hmar le Zomi delna districts pathum Churachandpur, Jiribam le Tamenglong le Mizoram Hmar delna ramri lai hi thautui le gas tamna a nih. India, Manipur le Mizoram sawrkar haiin Netherlands company Jubiliant Oil and Gas Pvt Ltd (JOGPL) hai kuoma petroleum exploration license an pek tah. Thautui chodawk tumin thaukhur sawmthum ah sin an thaw tum. Company dang khawm an inchawmlut tum zing. A do pawl Jiribam, Nungba, Tamenglong, Imphal, Sibapurikhal, Parbung le Khanghor ah an tam.

JOGPL Company hotu haiin ei rama survey le exploration works an thaw theina dingin forest clearance le environment clearance an buoipui vat ring a um. Exploration huna precautionary measures hai ei lo hriet lawk a tul a. Project leia sawrkarin royalties a hmu ding hai laia percent iemanizat Hmar delna biel mipui development le ei welfare sukhmasawnna dingin hmang ni raw seh. Project leia sinruok hrukbik pha local mi ditsak ni raw hai seh. Chun company hai CSR initiative popo ei hlawkna ding vawng ni raw seh. Survey le exploration sung ei lampui hai suktha vawng dingin ngen ei tiu. Ei ram delin a zir leiin ei pawimaw ta bek bek a nih. Ei pawimawna hi hnam dangin hlawkpui lem pal an tih ti inlau zingin political vision nei ei tiu. Tipaimukh Dam le inzawma sin hi sawrkarin la sukpuitling a tih. Hnamin a hlawkpui dan ding ngaituo thang ei tiu. Nagaland le Umrangsuo mipui chanthatna chu thautui, lungmeihawl le tui an nih.

Ei delna ah IMT Road, KMMT Peoject le Oil le Gas Exploration le Drilling hai hi trade, commerce le security tienga India chanthana ding vawng an nih. Ei lo hlawkpui ve ding hai an nih. Ei ram sukhmasawn theitu an nih.

Hi hi an lungril ah hrie karin India le Manipur sawrkarin Manipur Hills UG Groups hieng NSCN (IM), KNO le UPF hai hi an inbiek pui zing a nih. New Delhi in Imphal hai a mawrin a mawr zing a. Aizawl khawm a to tawk tawk bik nawh. Mizo-Hmar Agreement (SHC Accord 2018) khawm hi dorbin a inthawk hin ei en a tul. Trade, commerce le business in a hmuna cheng biel mipui an hlawk pha India le Myanmar kara lampui infepawna sukbuoitu do ngamtu khawm local mi tho an la ni ding a nih. Mipuiin rambung pahni kara inlaichinna an tangkaipui thei pha business suksetu UG do an tak tak ngai nawh. Act East Policy hi India le ASEAN haiin long term a an hlawkpui ding thil a nih. A ra fa pha ve tuhai ni tum ei tiu.

INLAND WATERWAY

National Inland Waterway Bhaga khuo (Karimganj) a inthawka Lakhipur Ghat chena mi hi sawrkarin a ngaipawimaw ta bek bek a nih. Kolkata le Karimganj inland Waterway zawm an tum. Chuleiin Tipaimukh, Taithu khuo, Patpuihmun khuo, Khanthuom khuo, Sibapurikhal le Hmarkhawlien Ghat hai an la pawimaw ding a nih. Tuiruongdung trade le commerce ah main players ei ni thei. Chu chu lungril ah siein capitalist commerce tieng ei insukdet a tul. New market forces tienga lung lo petu ei pung zing a. Lawm a um.

(A). Naga MLA: 10 (NPF 4) out of Manipur Assembly 60 seats.

Tamenglong, Ukhrul, Chandel le Senapati deltu hnam huoisen an nih. Naga flag le Constitution thuah inbiekna in zo zai la rel naw sien khawm Naga Framework puitling lo tangkaipui ding hai an nih. Manipur state huomsunga NH 37 Tamenglong Jiribam Road, NH 39 Senapati Dimapur Road le NH 150 Ukhrul-Imphal Kohima Road controltu an nih. Kum khatah ni 120 vel bandh ko a ni hlak. Dan lo checkpoints 20 bek hrawthleng ding an um. Trade le commerce dodaltu an nih. Students le civil society groups UG le link nei an tam. Chuleiin Act East Policy a role pawimawtak playtu an nih.

Kum 1989-1997 chen kha Hmar politics le Naga hai politics in inzawmna thatak a lo nei. Ei politicians le hnam thuoitu haiin Naga hai leh relations thatak an lo siem ve. Southern Nagalim le inzawma ei hnam damna ding lo daptu ei um. Chun HAC sunga Naga-Kuki inremnawna a khawm ei MLA haiin powerplay an lo hmang ve hlak. Ei lo hlawkpui em em.

Manipur valley based helpawl le Naga helpawl China le Myanmar a inkul haiin territorial Manipur integrity, Nagalim, Kuki-Naga buoi politics, Paite-Kuki hnam buoina le ei rama lut helpawl hai an lo hmang a. Chu le inzawma kum 1997-2000 sunga HPC-D le HRF kara inhrietthiemnawna rasuok chu Manipur le Tuithaphai Hmar haiin ei lo tuor tawl seng. Ei hnam thuoitu Pu Ngurdinglien Sanate (HNU President le Tipaimukh MLA hlui), Pu HA Lalrohlu (Accredited Journalist le Shan Daily Editor) le Pu Songlienthang Songate (Chairman, Hmar Joint Action Committee le Vice President, HNU) hai chen nunrawng taka that an nih. HPC-D movement zarin kum 2018 khan Mizoram ah SHC a pieng a. Amiruokchu, HRF Movement in rasuok iengkhawm nei lovin Mizoram sawrkar kuoma hnam silai tha popo kum 2000 khan an lo van tung tah.

(B). Kuki MLA: 6 (Congress, etc.).

Manipur a NH 42 Thoubal-Chandel Moreh Road Asian Highway 1 controltu an nih. Kangpokpi laia NH 39 Imphal Kohima Road controltu an ni bawk. Chuleiin Act East Policy le inzawma hnam pawimaw an nih.

Kuki le hin pansak le panthlang annawle khawchung le khawthlang anga inzawmna nei ei nih. Hill a ADC districts paruk a chu Kuki hi next to Naga an nih. Indopui pahni laia Hmar Thuthlung Thar lo siethatu chu Tuolphei khuoa Haokip hai an nih. Kum 1956 chen kha Kuki annawle Lushai annawle Naga tia mi kotu an lo um. Khawvel khawma kum tamlem kha Kuki angin a mi namdet. Kum 1939 bawra inthawk khan HSA, HMF, HNC le HNU MAT hmalakna zarin Hmar uongpui ngam ei hung pung a. Kum 1964-1972 khan Hmar District chen huoi takin ei lo sopui ta a nih. Inri nuoi nuoin ei lo phur hle a nih. Chun kum 1968 a Hmar Bible ei neia inthawk khan Hmar ni ei uongpui ta em em.

Saikawt MLA bielah term nga zet Hmar ei lo ngir. Kum 1974, 1980 le 1995 khan HNU support Pi T. Kholly ei vote tling hne nawh. Kum 1984 kum Pu Lala Khawbung vote 48 chiin MLA eiin ni tir nawh. Kum 1990 khan Pu Vanlalnghak Tusing ei suktling chuong nawh. Pu Lalthalien in kum 2007 khan Pu TN Haokip a zuk khing de a chu, hnam dang boruok ei hip phak nawh. HNU lem chu an lang ta nawh. Pu Ngulkhohau le Pu Chungkhawsiem hai chauvin Saikawt MLA bielah Pu TN an lo hneng hne.

Kum 1997-1999 sunga Kuki le Paite buoi laia Kuki le Paite kara inremna daptu ei nih. MLA politics a zawngin inkhing inla khawm, pansak le ei buoi neinuoi chang chu Hmar hnam hi Kuki State annawle Kuki Territorial Council hnuoiah damsuok ve thei ei tih, titu ei um hlak.

(C). Zo MLA: 3 (CCP, Thanlon le Singat MLA biel):

Thanlon laia NH 150 Tipaimukh Road controltu an nih. Imphal a inthawka Myanmar tlung Teddim Road control-tu an nih. NH 102-B Manipur-Mizoram Singhat-Sinzawl-Ngopa Road an control bawk.

India sawrkar Act East Policy le inzawma hnam pawimaw an nih. Kum 2009 a inthawk khan sawrkarin Kolkata seaport le Mizoram chu Myanmar a Sittwe seaport (Rakhen state) le Paletwa (Chin state) hmangin a sukmat tum a. Chuleiin Zokhawthar (Mizoram) le Teddim (Burma) kara lampui siemthat a tum a nih. Hi project hi Kaladan Multi Modal Transport Project (KMMTP) an tih. Thailand-Moreh-Imphal-Sinzawl-Ngopa NH in Kaladan Road hi a zawm pha chu Guite Road (Sinzawl le Ngopa) biela Zomi hnam haiin an tangkai pui hle ding a nih. NH 150 Bukpi Sinzawl Bypass le inzawma ei hnamin ei hlawkpui thei dan ngaituo vat tul a tih. Mizoram a Sialkal Range Development Council neitu Paite hai hamthatna ding a pung pei tah. Myanmar le India border laia Paite khuo Chiahpui khuo le Aizawl hi rail lamin an zam vat ding a nih. Chu huna chun Imphal-Teddim Road hung pawimaw tang a tih. Act East Policy hi India le Myanmar a Zomi le Teddim Chin hnamin an tangkai pui ding a nih. An ram le hnam khawvelin hrietfu tang a ta. An tawng hum thei bawk an tih.

(D). Churachandpur currents

Kum 1969 khan Manipur South District (MSD) a pieng a. Kum 1972 a inthawk khan MSD chu subdivisions panga a the a nih. Chuong hai chu: Tipaimukh, Thanlon, CCP North, CCP South le Thingat (Singngat) hai an nih. Kum 1983 khan MSD chu CCP District a thlaktleng a nih.

Kum 2011 District Census Handbook dungzuia Churachandpur district population chu a hnuoia hin ei hung tarlang:

1). Lamka 73,388

2). Tuibong 47,913

3). Henglep 30,616

4). Samulamlan 25,119

5). Singngat 22,130

6). Thanlon 18,464

7). Tipaimukh 16,117

8). Saikawt 14,361

9). Sangaikot 13,357

10). Vangai 12,678

11). Rengkai Town 8,293

12). Zehnang Lamka Town 7,771

13). Hill Town 2,293

Kum 1997 a Kuki le Paite buoi a inthawk khan a hnuoia hnam pakuo hai khun Zomi Council indinin, hnam dang lakah invenghimna le political hriemhreiin an hmang. Zomi Council in kum 2012 a inthawk khan Zomi hnam pakuo ta dingin Manipur sunga Autonomous Hill State a ngen a. Chun kum 2016 khan PMP Bill theitawp suoin a lo dodal tah.

Zomi Council (ZC) a member pakuo hai:

1. GTC-Gangte

2. KUM-Kom

3. MTC-Mate

4. PTC-Paite

5. STL-Simte

6. TCU-Teddim Chin

7. TPO-Thangkhal

8. UZO-Zou

9. VPC-Vaiphei

Zomi Council hnuoia Hmar Inpui GHQ le HNU GHQ chu an thang nawh.

Kuki le Thadou in Zohnathlak hi lem intak an la ti met a chu Kuki, Thadou, Mizo, Hmar le Zomi hai hi Zohnathlak an nih. Zomi MLA pathum CCP, Thanlon le Singhat biela inthawka tling hai hi BJP ticket sirsana MLA tling vawng an nih. Tuhin Manipur sawrkar ah thuneina insangtak cheltu an nih. Mizoram a an unau Sialkal Range/Champhai le Myanmar ramri laia cheng hai an ngaina hle.

CCP le Thanlon MLA bielah Hmar hai chu MLA tling thei le a dawttu ni thei hai ei nih. 1967 khan CCP bielah Pu Rokung Hmar MLA in ei lo thlang tling. 1972 khan Pu Ruolneikhum Pakhuongte ei vote tling hne nawh. Kum 1984 khan Pu JF Rothangliana chu KNA hmingin ei lo vote tling. Chu hnung chu Pu Hangkhanlian le Pu Phungzathang hai politics in Hmar hai a mi nuoivir tah. Chun kum 1995 khan Thanlon MLA bielah HNU support Pu C. Thant Khawbung ei lo vote tling nawh.

(E). Hmar MLA:

NH 2 Thanlon-Tuivai Road (NH 150 Taithu Bypass a inthawka Tipaimukhchen) le JT Road (Jiribam a inthawka NH 150 Taithu Bypass chen) controltu ei nih. Sawrkarin sum tamtak sengin Taithu Bypass lampui hi a buoipui zing. Ei rama Tipaimukh Dam bawl an tum a. Hmar in MLA 1 (Congress) ei nei a. Hmar MLA biel Tipaimukh ah Zo haiin vote 800 bawr an nei a. Ei biel hi vote zanga-zaruk a tling theina biel a ni leiin, Hmar MLA biela Zo chu "deciding factor" pawimawtak an nih. Naga le Kuki HAC politics karah eini Hmar in chanvo tha tak ei nei thei. Chu chu Meitei MLA haiin an hriet. Manipur sawrkarin a hriet bawk. Zo MLA pathum hai khawma kawlhnamin an mi hmang thei.

Hmar District hmu ding chun MLA ni phawt a tul tia ngaidan siemtu ei hung suok a. Kum 1967 a inthawk khan HNU chun Hmar District Demand bawzui nekin MLA politics a hung sopui chur chur ta lem a. Kum 1967 khan Churachandpur le Jiribam MLA biel a tling dan a lo buoipui. 1967 khan CCP MLA biel ah Hmar ei thlangtling. Amiruokchu, hnam dang hlemin ei lo um.

Kum 1972 a inthawk khan Hmar District Demand chu Tipaimukh MLA biel ah an min fenlut tir. 1972 kha HNU hmalakna le Hmar District ngenna hun tawpna a ngai thei a nih. Tuchen hin politically in HNU chu a pilhmang tah. CCP MLA bielah Hmar ei tling thei ta nawh. Kum 1995 khan HNU in MLA candidate pathum Saikawt, Thanlon le Tipaimukh MLA biel ah a lo support a. An tling naw vawng. Chun HNU support candidate lo khingtu hai chungah action lak harsa a tih. HNU President ni lai chu MLA inngirtir lo ding tiin EWC in thuthlukna a la siem thei nawh. Hihi HNU hrat thei naw nasan a nih.

Amiruokchu, HNU hi MLA tling theina field anga ngaitu ei tam lem. September 24, 1970 a Hmar District Demand Day hmang kha tienami in an chang tah. Mipui support nekin MLA politics inhnel a tamlemin hel thahratna sirsanin tling an tum. A hlawtling haiin an fund le scheme hai mipui ta dingin an hmang thei ta ngai nawh. Nina nei thawthei neilo an ni ta hlak.

(F). Sixth Schedule extension politics:

Manipur a Hill Districts hnuoia ADC paruk a um a. Chuong hai chu Naga, Kuki, Zomi, Hmar le Mizo hai delna ram an nih. ADC members 144 an um a. CCP ADC hnuoia 24 members an um. Thawfuk chun ADC biel riet ah tling thei a nih. Amiruokchu, Hmar tui pawllo tlingna biel chu pali chau ei nei: Parbung, Vangai, Senvawn le Saikawt. Thanlon, New Lamka West, New Lamka East le Zehnang Lamka biel ah tling thei ei nih.

Manipur Hill Districts ah helpawl sawmhni panga an um a. Chuong hai chun Manipur a ADC paruk le HAC hi hill districts mipui sukhmasawn theitu dingin an ringzo ta nawh. Kum 2008 a inthawk khan sawrkar le SoO an sign a. UPF in kum 2012 khan Manipur sunga Autonomous Hill State a demand. KNO ruok chun Kuki State a demand. Kum 2016 khan KNO le UPF in sawrkar le political dialogue an nei tan a. Kum 2017 khan KNO le UPF kara political zawnga inhrietthiemna daptu ding interlocutor ruot a nih.

Manipur sawrkarin Manipur Hills Districts ah Sixth Schedule a extend nuom thu vawitam a lo hril tah. Imphal in MHA kuoma a lekhathawn nuhnungtaka khan, "Local adjustments le circumstances", a lo sopui. Central sawrkarin uluk takin a study zing.

4. TERRITORIAL COUNCIL

Manipur Hills Autonomous Territorial Council

Sawrkar le KNO/UPF inbiek vawirukna January 10, 2019 a khan Sixth Schedule sirsan DRAFT OUTLINE OF TERRITORIAL COUNCIL chu KNO le UPF in sawrkar table ah an phawrlang tah. An Territorial Council (TC) hin Assam a BTC a besan a. Amiruokchu, BTC implementation huna drawbacks hai nguktakin an hriltlang. BTC tuoinamin, Manipur Hill Districts ah TC putlut an tum. 7th Round political dialogue chu Delhi ah June 25, 2019 khan an lo nei tah.

Meitei le Naga helpawl tilo Manipur Hills Districts a Kuki/Hmar/Zomi/Zo/Komrem UG Groups pahni hai chu a hnuoia hin ei hung tarlang:

(A). Kuki National Organisation

KNO hnuoia 17 armed groups an um. Kuki, Hmar, Zomi, Zou le Komrem. President PS Haokip. KNA, KNF MC, KNF Z, KLA/KNO, UAKLA, KRAU, UKRA, HNA, ZRF, USRA, ZDV KNO, etc.)

KNO hin India dan hnuoia Kuki State an demand. Ukhrul, Senapati le Tamenglong ADC area huomsunga Kuki hai hi Southern Nagalim in a huomsa ve a. Chuleiin Kuki State hi Manipur le Nagalim chun an theida hle. 1992-1997 chen kha Naga le Kuki hai an lo indo a. Kum 1997 khan Kuki le Paite an indo ve. Zomi Council a hung pieng a. KNO hi Manipur a inthawka suok tum an nih. Kuki le Hmar inlaichinna siemthat a pawimawzie lungrilah hriein HNA in a theìtawp suoin hnam rawng a bawl ve.
(B). United People's Front

UPF hnuoia 8 armed groups an um. Kuki, Hmar le Zomi. Chairman ST Thangboi Kipgen. KNF P, KNF S, KNA, UKLF, KLA KLO, HPCD, ZRA, etc.

Manipur sunga ADC paruk huom sung po hi Manipur state sungah "Autonomous Hill State (AHS)" a hlangkai an tum. AHS hnuoia Ukhrul, Senapati le Tamenglong ADC area huomsunga Kuki hai hi Southern Nagalim le Kuki State in a huomsa ve. Chuleiin UPF hin Nagalim le Kuki State a tawkbuoi thei. ZRA le Meitei helpawl KYKL hai kara inlaichinna thatak a um. ZRA le NSCN IM hai khawma strategic partnership an nei. ZRA le KLO hai chu ruoltha an nih. HPC-D Manipur Region hai khawma ruolthar an nei.

Interlocutor Pu AB Mathur a rawiin KNO, UPF, India le Manipur kara inbiekna chu tha takin a fe zing. KNO demand chu "Zo State" khawm ti inla a pawi nawh an ti thu le UPF in a demand Autonomous Hill State chu "Zoland" ti pawi an ti ta nawh ti thu ei lo hriet bawk.

Meitei kara ei political process le lampui pal mek chu a hnuoia hin ei hung tarlang:

(1). Naga Territorial Autonomous Council (NTAC)

Naga Peace Process thuah Naga le Meitei hai ngaidan an ang nawh. Meitei haiin an ram hek zawnga Nagalim pieng ding an do zing. Chuleiin Manipur territorial integrity sukse zawnga Naga Framework zam chu dawrkarin a tum nawh. Amiruokchu, NTAC hi Manipur a Naga inthanglien theina dinga development hriemhrei ning a tih. An sekibusuk la ning a tih. Naga delna district panga ah zam an tum. Hill Districts pathum ah Kuki State demand area le intawkbuoi thei an tih. Naga le Kuki hai hi kum 1992-1997 laia lo indo an ni a. Manipur state sunga um zinga an pahnia an lungawi sukawi theina political le development agency ngaituo dawk tul a tih.

(2). Kuki Territorial Autonomous Council (KTAC)

Manipur a Meitei le Naga an suklungawi angin Kuki khawm an huoilut ve ding. An hriemhrei chu KTAC hi ning a tih. Nagalim in a zepsa ding inlau Kuki haiin an buoipui. Zomi, Zou le Hmar delna a tamlem huop a tih. Kum 1997 lai khan Kuki le Zomi hai an lo indo tah. Kuki le Hmar hai khawm kum 1959-1960 khan an lo indo tah. Chuleiin Hmar le Zomi hai suklungawi lovin KTAC indin a harsa ding a nih. Kuki Territorial Autonomous Council hnuoia Hmar Regional Council (HRC) buoipuitu ei um.

(3). Zomi Territorial Autonomous Council (ZTAC)

Hill Districts sunga factors pawimawtak pahni hai chu Naga le Kuki groups hai hi an nih. A dawttu chu Hmar le Zomi an nih. Hmar le Zomi hai zepsa thuah KNO le UPF hai Draft Territorial Councils enfel mek an nih. Thenkhatin Zoland Territorial Autonomous Council (ZTC) an hrilri tan tah. MLA pathum delna mipuiin an sopui zing. Myanmar-Manipur-Mizoram ramri le Guite Road biela cheng an ni a. Sawrkar cheltu tienga thang an ni bawk.

Hmar delna khuo Tipaimukh MLA biel, Thanlon MLA biel, Saikawt MLA biel le Churachandpur MLA biel huomsunga cheng Hmar hai inthanglienna dingin Regional Council ei pawimaw tia lo sopuitu ei um. ZTC hnuoia Hmar Regional Council (HRC) buoipuitu ei um. Hmar National Union (HNU) le Paite National Council (PNC) hmalakna zarin kum 1967 a inthawka kum 1999 chen kha Zomi le Hmar kara inlaichinna tha ei lo siem a. Strategic partnership le politics ah inkhing hlak inla khawm, ei in-unauna a lo lien em em.

Kum 2000 bawr a inthawk khan ei sir le vela hnam puitling hai lai boruok a hung inlumlet a. An khawvel nghatdan khawm a hung inthlakdanglam thut a. An national interest an Tuithaphai a Hmar haiin kum 2006 laia Rengkai Incident kha ei theinghil vat hmel ta nawh. Rengkai hi ei Hmarkhawpui pawimawtak laia mi a nih. Zomi le Hmar kara inlaichinna siemthat tumtu ei um.

(4). Hmar Territorial Autonomous Council (HTAC)

Kum 1998 a Kuki-Zomi Peace Agreement a khan "Kuki" le "Zomi" ti terms hai hi pawmtlang ding ti a nih. Zomi le Kuki a tutukhawma hnam dang chunga Zomi le Kuki impose tum lo ding ti a nih. A chawipawl Zomi le Kuki haiin hnam dang chunga force hmangin tax le fund dawl thei naw ni hai tia inremna ziek a nih. CCP kha Lamka ti le AIR CCP link language chungthua iengkhawm agreement ah zieklang a um nawh. Amiruokchu, kha tuma inremna lekha a khan Hmar haiin signature ei lo thaw nawh. Kum 2008 a inthawk khan UPF (Zomi le Kuki Groups) intiin lung sukawi tu ei um. Zomi, Kuki le Hmar Groups ei nih. Autonomous state annawle Sixth Schedule ei sopui ve tah. Kuki TC in Thadou a ditsak thei a, chun Zoland TC in Paite a ditsak bik titu ei pung pei. Kuki-Chin-Mizo Group of nomenclature hi Kuki-Chin-Mizo-Hmar Group a nih tia inring taka khekdawk tum an um.

Pherzawl district le CCP district huomsung Saikawt subdivision Hmar area le Rengkai khitkawpa satellite Hmar TC demand-tum ei um tah. Kuki le Naga ang thova hnam puitling pakhata inngai Hmar haiin HTAC an khekpui ve.

Sixth Schedule hi India danpui hnuoia tlangmi ta dinga hamthatna insangtak a nih. Assam a Bodo, Karbi le Dimasa le Mizoram a Chakma, Pawi le Lakher le Meghalaya a Khasi, Garo le Jaintia haiin an chen zing. Manipur a Naga, Kuki, Zomi le Hmar haiin ei inhnar.

Kum 1952 khan Hmar National Congress in sawrkar ah Hmar District Demand memorandum hmasatak a lo thelut a. Manipur le Assam a Hmar hai hmathlir ding an lo induong. Pu Rochung Pudaite zarin ST list ah zieklut ei hung ni a. Hmar District bawzuitu dingin kum 1958 khan HNU a pieng a. Lushai Hills a MNF hrat lai tak Hmar khuo paruk ah HNU units indin an nih. Palsang a Pu H. Thanga Keivawm le Vaitin a Pu L. Sungte haiin education, economic, medical, communication le infrastructure sirsanin TUISUOL REGION Hmar Thimpui an lo sopui a. Hmar thuoitu hai zarin Hmar Regional Council an lo khekdawk. An tum ram tlung naw hai sien khawm Palsang, Vaitin, Khawpuar, Tinghmun, Mauchar le Sakawrdai mipui hai hnam inhnikna history book in theinghil ta naw nih.

HNU hmalakna in kum 1967 chen kha HNU in Hmar District a lo sopui. HNU in Hmar mipui Tipaimukh tieng a maksan hma popo khan HNU Block kha traditional conflict resolution le politico-administrative entity pawimawtak a lo nih. Hmar District Demand le inzawmin ei political lekha submit le Manipur Hmar political aspiration hai an lan tuok thei nawh. Pherzawl Revenue district bak ei la khel nawh. Khawm chu kebai le mitdel a nih.

Nikhat laia Zoland Territorial Council (ZTC) demand bawzuitu Delhi a raaylist hai sixth schedule demand banner support ding le ding naw thua ei hnam sungah ngaidan ei sukthluk thei vat nawh. Manipur a Hmar ta ding bik liu liuvin Hmar Territorial Council (HTC) a hrana bawzui a tha lem titu ei tam lem. Tipaimukh dam le lal nina politics tieng ei thlur pha, Zogam a lungril pe ngam um bek naw inla khawm, Zoland support pawl mimal tiemkhawp ei um tah.

Zomi Council chun a theitawp suoin ZTC a sopui tah. Amiruokchu, Zomi Council members pakuo laia pathum hieng Gangte, Zou le Teddim hnam thuoitu haiin Zoland TC support banner hmanga thenkhat hmalakna an theida thu an puong tah. An hnamin an hrietpui nawh tiin lekha an insuo ta bawk.

Kum 2016 laia Three Bills against a ei sung le kuo bills ei lo dodal puitu a hnuoia pawl pali hai khun Zoland Territorial Council chungthua an ngaidan officially chun an lan suo naw ni mei a tih.

a. Kuki Inpi Manipur

b. United Naga Council

c. Mizo People's Convention

d. Hmar Inpui GHQ.

Lekhabupui India sawrkar Act East Policy-ah, Manipur a Naga-Kuki-Mizo-Chin Group a "Naga le Kuki" haiin inkhina insangtak an nei a. New Delhi dorbin ah KNO le UPF hai an pawimaw ta em em. Manipur a tlangram a cheng hnam, a tunga lawn hai numerical strength en chun hnam upa deu le changpar deu ei um a. Myanmar le lan hnai taluo hnam ei um bawk. Mizoram le inhnai taluo ei um ve. Amiruokchu, Zomi Council (Member hnam pakuo umba) le United Naga Council (UNC) ang tribal alliance system Hmar Council annawle Unau Suopui ti hmingput political hriemhrei Biate, Hrangkhol, Sakechep, Komrem, Halam, etc. in ei la nei ve nawh. Naga TC le Kukiland TC ri an ring ta leiin Zomi Council in Zomi TC a sopui tah.

Kum 1997 a inthawk khan Zomi Council Member pakuo hieng Paite, Zomi, Gangte, Mate, Kom, Simte, Teddim Chin, Zou le Vaiphei hai hin ZC hi hnam dang laka invenghimna in an lo hmang a. Hnam chienlem hai ta dingin ZC hi security instrument a nih. Gangte, Kom le Zou haiin lem harsa an la ti de a chu Paite, Simte le Thangkhal hnam hai khawma an unau chanpui ZC huomsunga Zomi hnam dang hai leh inremtakin Zomi TC an sopui thei tah. Inchuk ding tamtak Unau Suopui haiin ei nei a nih.

Manipur tribal dynamic political ecosystem sirsana Kuki State lo van hnik chu Hmarbiel le Vangai a inthawka Tuithaphai le a sevel a hang inpemlut hai ta dingin la harsang a tih. Manipur ah "ram" ei hau. Amiruokchu, Hmar hminga ram "patta" nei ei la um nawh. Chuleiin Hmar hamthatna buoipuitu KNO le UPF sunga tlawmngaitu hai ei salaam. "Hmarland" in Kukidesh le "Hmarram" in Zoland ei mamaw ve ve. Hmar hnamin mit pahni neia hnam dang anga a tunga a lawn thei vena dinga Political roadmap panga luongsuok theina khawpa lungril mansapui nei ei ni a. Ei divergents popo Hmar pil belah a keng. Politically-in ei sir le vela hnam dang nunghak popo ei ngaizawng a tul. Nuhmei ruok chu pakhat chi nei ding. A hming Hmarland ni raw seh.

Hmarram le Hmarland khitkawpa "Hmar Country" dittu ei um. A buoipui tak tak tumtu hai ta dingin ISSUE la tling a tih. "Hmar Nation" uongpuitu ei um tah.

Hmar sunga hnam hmasawn dan ding ngaituotu lai ngaidan tha tamtak a luonglut zinga. Hieng hai hin puoksuok le luongsuok an nuom a. Kawtkhar pakhat chauva luongsuok thei an ta nawh. Kawt dang dang ei siem pek a tul. Chu luongsuok chu Hmar Nationalism luongdawk theina dinga choka te ei i bawl pek thei chu a nih. Choka busuongna ding a um phawt naw chun riekna ding hei bawl nawt nawt a harsa a. Chuleiin INPUI bawl tum ei ni chun choka, namthlak, etc lungrilah sie phawta ram ei inchawk tul a tih. Tulai lem chu Plot khatah Rs 3,00,000 hnuoi a um ta nawh, Saidan lai khawm chuong ang rate tho an tah.

Manipur a hin Kom le Gangte khitkawp ritawl khawm eini Hmar hai zat zet an nih. Ruol ding an lo invai hun a lo tam. History ei hriet seng. Dam suok an nuom a. Hmar an mi lo bel hlak. Ei challenge ei lo hlen hle ngai nawh. Bel theiin ei lo um bawk nawh. Tuhin chu ei mit sukvar tum tang ei tiu.

Ei sir le vela hnam chienlem hai chu tienlaia Triple Alliance le Quadruple Alliance or Allied Forces or Axis Powers angin an inkhitdet tah. United Naga Council UNC, Kuki Inpi KI, Thadou Inpi TI le Zomi Council ZC hai thil tum ei hriet seng. Pakhat indopui chu an renga indopui ang tluk ni tang a tih. Chu chu ei boruok pal zing a ni tah. Manipur a hnam buoina a lo suok ngun leiin a tutu khawma an hnam chit damna ding an zawng tah. Bel thei hai an bel pei hlak. Chuleiin Kom le Gangte hnam Zomi Council ah an lut hi a mak nawh. An hnam thuoitu hai realism a nih. Naga le Kuki hnuoia um nuomlo, Hmar bel thei ding um bawklo chun Zomi a bek an kawp tei tei a tul. Ei hnam angin an tam ve nawh. An indar a. Kiltin kiltanga um an ni leiin Zomi Council chu an damna angin an ngai ve.

1992 a Naga-Kuki buoina le
1997 a Kuki-Paite buoina a hung re khan hnam chite te hai an intuoithar a, an damna ding an zawng tan a. Zomi Council ah inkhitde pawl an hung um a. Mizoram tienga mit inlen pawl an um bawk. Vaihnunga ZC a lut hlawl an um. Tuta ZTC hi CCP district, Pherzawl le a sevel Ukhrul le Chandel a cheng hnam chienlem haiin an zuk damsuok pui ring naw hai sien khawm, bel thei umsun a nih, tia an bel phawt a hawi. Hnam anga Politics thiem ding chun double standards play thiem a tul a. Puitling tak tak value system "respect" der lo politicians an tam tah. ZTC le KTC a lo va thang ve ve a pawimawna tam a tih. Hnam anga damsuok tuma hmalatu ei unau hnam dang hai ei salute.

CCP to Mizoram through Singhat le Sinzawl Road an siem zo pha chu Paite hai biel Aizawl le Bairabi rail station a inthawkin hla ta naw nih. Mizoram le Manipur ramri a Paite le Sialkal Range Development Council chanthatna ding daptu hai thil tum ngaiven zing ei tiu. Ei chanpuol ding thil mi hemdanglam pek pal an tih.

An thil dit hrildawk ngam el nilovin ZC haiin an thil dit ngennan lampui chen a bukin an hraw ngam tah. Zoland an khekdawkpui ngam hi ngaisang an um. Democracy rawl hi lungsiettu lo um ngei an tih. Numerical strength hisap kitab chun Manipur a chu Zo/Zou inti hai le Hmar chu (35,000: 44,000) anga quantify thei ei nih. Second fiddle nekin First among equals position a ngir ding ei nih. Chun Thadou le khawm first among equals ei nih. Naga le Kuki hai ruok hi chu ei pu hai pu hai an nih.

Mani khata dingchang taka politics a ngirsuok thei Hmar TC neka insanglem politics chu a um nawh. Amiruokchu, hnam anga ei "Political Standing" chu ei thil nawrdan a inthawkin hmu theiin a um. Second fiddle annawle First among equals chu hriet thei a nih.

Kum 1967 hma khan chu "CCP ah Hmar, Thanlon ah Paite" tiin HNU hmalakna in ei lo thangtlang hlak. Saikawt le Tipaimukh chu chapter thar tawp an nih. 1972 a pieng an nih. Sawrkar dawrbin a chu Naga-Kuki Groups ei pawimaw hle. Amiruokchu, a vel a tlung pha chu Zomi TC khawm tukhawma ei dang hne naw ding. Chuleiin Kuki TC le Zomi TC sunga ei intuklut a tul. Naga hai ei inruolthat pui a ngai.

5. THUKHARNA

HNU

Manipur a Hmar political hmathlir buoipuitu tak chu Hmar National Congress HNC (1952) le Hmar National Union HNU (1958) hai kha an nih. HNC lawng a pil khan HNU biel a hung lien a. Cachar (Assam), Lushai Hills (Mizoram) le Darchawi (Tripura) a chen HNU in rawl a lo zu nei hman a nih. Kum 1967 khan HNU in Pu Lalrokung Hmar chu Churachandpur MLA biel ah a support tling. September 24, 1970 kha HNU District Demand Day in ei lo hmang. We demand Hmar District. We want Peace. Lien pei raw seh, Hmar National Union, ei lo khekpui.

Kum 1972 khan Tipaimukh MLA biel a pieng a. MLA election ah HNU support Congress candidate Pu Ngurdinglien Sanate chu Tipaimukh bielah ei thlangtling. CCP bielah Rev Ruolneikhum Pakhuongte ei inngirtir bawk.

Amiruokchu, HNU thuoitu thenkhatin HNU hmalakna hnam le district politics le Tipaimukh MLA politics ti kha an lo thlirhran thei naw leiin kum 1972 a inthawk khan Tipaimukh MLA politics kha HNU hnam politics sawnin MLA le HNU politics an lo khitkawpa. Kum tam tak mipui an lo fen. HNU Presidentship tling chu MLA tling theina sirbi in an hung hmang a. Sawrkar ah an lut hnungin Hmar District demand a hung harsa pek ta a nih. Hmar District ngenna hun ei lo suktawp ta a nih.

CCP MLA biel Tuithaphai nekin Tipaimukh MLA biel thar ah HNU a lulut a. Tipaimukh MLA inchu politics ei sopui a inthawk khan Hmar District in a mi maksan ta a nih. Chu taka inthawk chun Manipur Hmar District Demand politics chu khur mawngbo ah a lut ta a nih. HNU chen a hung kawidar pha a. HNU Assam a pieng.

Vaihnungin HNU thuoitu thenkhat in kum 1995 khan theitawp suoin Manipur Hmar District movement an sopui tum nawk a. Manipur a MLA biel pathum ah Hmar candidates Pu C. Thant Khawbung (Thanlon MLA constituency), Pu Songlienthang Songate (Tipaimukh MLA constituency) le Pi T. Kholly (Saikawt MLA constituency) an inngirtir a. Mipuiin an vote tling chuong nawh. HNU support candidates kal zawnga ngirlui hai chunga action lak harsa a tih. Chuleiin Hmar hnam huop political programme huoihawt harsa a hung ti ta a nih. Kum 1997 HNU Ankhasuo Assembly zo a inthawk khan HNU chu a politically in a pilhmang tah.

Ei political apparatus umsun HNU hi private institution sum lamna khawl ang chau a ni tah. Hmar Inpui in HNU hmun le power pawimaw tak a lak pek vang vang tah. Amiruokchu, Inpui in a van rawl ngam nawna Jati le Mati politics hmunpui a um. HNU hi indinthar nawk thei a nih.

1990s lai khan Pu Lalthansang Intoate le hnam a thahnemngai thenkhat haiin India sawrkar kuoma Hmar District demand lekha an lo pek. HAADCo hming khawma sawrkar kuoma lekha submit a nih.

Region, GHQ, President le HNA hai le thangkawpin Hmar District an sopui nawk thei.

Pherzawl

Kum 2014 lai khan Hmar District sopui ta lovin Pherzawl District ei hung sopui tah. Sixth Schedule tieng sopui ta lem lovin Revenue Dept ah an mi tawppui tah. Thahnemngai hai zarin revenue Pherzawl ei khekdawk a. Biel pali Thanlon, Parbung, Vangai Range le Pherzawl subdivision in siem a nih. HSA in theitawp suoin sawrkar thawktu popo an bielah hawllut a tum zing.

Kum 2016 laia an mi pek "Pherzawl District" hi District puitling a la ni nawh. Hospital zuk pan thei, mobile tower tha, internet network tha, bank hmang thei, ei agro-based products zawrna thei market tha le ei thil nei tawldawk theina transport le communication system det ei la nei nawh. Sawrkar office le thawktu a tamlem CCP town ah an lan nghat. Mipui bei a dawng. HSA in boycott movement a zuk huoihawt de a chu, a tuortu mipui tho ei nih.

Natonal Highway 150 Bypass (Churachandpur to Jiribam through Taithu) hi ei hlawkpui seng theina dingin thang tlang ei tiu. Ei rama lampui siema um mek hai inspection thawa, NHIDCL contractors sin thaw thalo, target sukpuitlinglo hai Pherzawl District a hnam thuoitu haiin an la kawk ngam nawh. A san um a tih. Hmun danga chu DC le NGOs inthuruolin lampui tha mipuiin an nei thei dan ding buoipuiin NHIDCL thuoitu hai an nawr zing. Contractors tam tak showcause notice pek an nih. Contractors sin thaw tha lo, sin target baw pha lo hai chu DC hmangin NHIDCL through in showcause an pek. An vel kuol vawng ti ang chi kha a um tho a chu, an vel kuol leia huoilut ding zat an hriet. Sawma pakhat chu a pawi bek nawh. Sawmah sawm zuk ti tal tal chu a awm nawh. A tuortu ei ni tho ei nih.

Pherzawl District in development le welfare scheme delivery thuah "block level" a la pel thei nawh. Full fledged district facilities a la nei naw leiin mipui beidawngna a kieng chuong nawh. Pherzawl District Demand Committee (PDDC) in District puitling le development infrastructure chungthu hrattaka a bawzui theina dingin mipuiin ei support a tul.

Naga Framework Agreement

Manipur politics ah beiseina insangtak neia lo hlawsam hai ei ni a. Hmar Regional Boycott Movement, Mizo Union, HNU District Demand Movement, HPC, Naga, HRF, Meitei currents ei lo intuokpui vawng. Chuleiin Hmar district politics a lo zawi ngawingawi ningintel, hnungtawl ei nih.

Vawisuna Naga Framework, Zomi TC, Kuki TC boruok a hin beiseina insangtak ei nei ngam ta nawh. A san um a tih. Ei ningintelna in hun a la fak zing a. Ha rawt raka Hmar Territorial Council a zuk inchawmlut ngam ei la um nawh.

Ei hun liem ta hai ngaituo chun Kuki TC/Zomi TC hi ei vawisun politics beidawng ningintel a inthawka mi thuoidawk theitu dingin ei ring chuong nawh. Zomi tienga intellectual le spokesperson Tv Golan Naulak in a lo hril ang: "Zoland has Hmarram in it", lo sopuitu ei um a. Chun "Kukiland has Hmarram in it", ti theitu ei um bawk.

Chuleiin, Manipur Kuki UG Groups pahni hieng UPF/KNO huomsunga hnam thuoitu 25 laia thang Hmar Region le HNA haiin MHA le UG inbiekna a "Draft Hmar Territorial Council" (A um chun) public hriet thei chi po bek eini Hmar lai hril dar ve ta hai sien. GHQ le President Pawl khawma Hmarram tinzawna an thil tum (an nei chun) public domain ah putlut thei ta hai sien.

Hnam in Hmar District demand le inzawm thil public laia sechier thei a nei pha pha public mobilisation awl a tih. HSA in inkhawmpui, memorandum, hla, hnam puon, drama, quiz, essay, extempore le democratic means sirsanin Hmar District la khekdawk a tih. Politics ei inkhel thiem ang peiin unau Naga hai Framework hi ei hlawkpui thei ding a nih.

Politically, lampui pakhat ah ei luong hmunkhat thei naw khawma hriemhrei chi dang seng hmangin Hmar political vision pakhatah ei luongluot thei. Hnam politics ah Manipur Region, GHQ, President le HNA hai an inthuruol. HSA, HYA, Hmar Inpui, Hnam sipai, Nuhmei Pawl haiin hmun hran hrana capitals nei thei an tih. Rengkai, Hmarkhawlien, Parbung, Ankhasuo, Sakawrdai, Muolhoi le Saiphai hai hi "Hmar capitals" in siem ei tiu.

Draft Hmar Territorial Council

Thil pathum hieng-Mipui, Pawl thuoitu le Ram le Hnam ISSUE buoipui khawp hai hi an pawimaw seng. Amiruokchu, thuoitu in issue buoipui ding an tuok pui pha chau hnamin a tangkaipui hlak. Buoipui thei ding ram le hnam issue nei lo hun um a tih.

Buoipui ding issue a um chang khawma thuoitu in nawdang tieng a nghatsan hun a um thei. Chu huna chun mipui, hlasakthiem le democrats bawkin khuongpu sin an thaw thei.

Census 2021

Delimitation process hlawkpui tum in hnamtin an tlankuol. CCP, Saikawt le Thanlon MLA biel pathum hai hi MLA biel parukin sawrkarin a hlangkai dan ding ngaituo seng ei tiu. Chu taka chun ei hlawkna ding zawng ei tiu. Chu ding chun Census 2021 ngai pawimaw seng ei tiu. A tam thei patawpin inzieklut ei tiu.

Idea of Hmarland

Mizoram ah "Hmarram" ei nei tah. Assam a khawm, Khawbawntlang le Ngaibantlang khitkawpin Hmarram nei ei tum. Hmarram popo khitkawpin Hmarland nei thei a nih. Hmarland sunga cheng popovin Hmar Nation lungril ei put ni um a tih. Chu huna chun Hmar State pieng a tih.

Mizoram hi Hmar haiin ei ram ei ti thei. Zoland khawm ei ram a nih. Kukiland khawm ei ram a nih. Hmarram khawm ei ram a nih. Nagalim khawm ei ram a nih. Manmasi Desh khawm ei ram a nih. Shan, Khampat le Rakhen khawm ei ram an nih. Hmar hmasawn dan ding thuah Political Roadmap a lo inang naw leia insel inhal le intuolvuok ding ei ni nawh.

Naga-Kuki-Mizo-Hmar-Zomi nomenclature chau hi politics a ei damsuok theina a nih! Tuta sawrkarin ei rama a i buoipui mek National Highway Projects, India-Myanmar-Thailand Trilateral Project, Kolkata-Kaladan-Teddim-Champhai Project, Oil le Gas Exploration, Kolkata-Bhaga-Lakhipur National Waterway le Tipaimukh Dam hai hi hmatieng peia ei ram sukhmasawn theitu development agencies an nih.

Politics a ei beidawng-ningintel hun hung liem a ta, democractic hun tha hung pieng a ta. Chu hun thar a chun India sawrkar "Act East" Policy hi GenNext le "Hmardesh ka sipaiahi" hai Hmar politics indiktak ah an intawllut theina dinga lampui kawkhmutu hung ni ngei a tih.

Chu chu tinzawn zingin Hmar future socio-political le economic vision nei a tul. "Accelerators" annawle "speedbreakers" ei ni thei. Mani le mani insawisa ta lova hnam dang le a tunga ei inthlawn theina dingin Naga boruok inlumlet lai hin Hmar chanpuol ding le hmasawnna ding ngaituo tlang ei tiu.

Hnam sipai Manipur Region, GHQ, HNA le President pawl an rengin an thangtlang a tul tah. Chu ding hin HSA in rawl pawimawtak a nei.

Long live Hmarland!
Jai Hmardesh!
-Dada le Jojo-Pa,
Hmarkhawlien, Cachar, Assam

20.12.2019
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