~ Lal Dena

Ei thupui hi D.M.College-a Hmar MIL hmasuon mek le Hmar tawng hi tawng boral inlau um a nina le hmatieng peia a ngirhmun ding thlirlawkna zuk nei met ei tih.

1. DMC-a Hmar MIL hmabak: Ei hriet seng angin Hmar Literature Society (HLS), Assam le Hmar Literature Society (HLS), Manipur, hmalaknain Assam University (AU) le Manipur University (MU) hnuoiah, Hmar MIL ei inchuk thei ta a, lawm a um. Amiruokchu, Mizo MIL angin Hmar ṭawng inchuk theina college-haia khawm zirtirtu an um naw chun ei student-ha’n an inchuk thei chuong nawh. Hmar ṭawng inchuktir dingin lecturer post khawm ei nei thei bawk nawh. Hmar ṭawng inchûk theina college-haiah khawm zirtirtuhai tlawmngainaa thaw ṭawk ṭawk a nih. Entirna dingin, D.M College-ah hin unau Paitehai le Thadouhai chun lecturer an nei a, Paite MIL le Thadou MIL chu awlsam takin an inchuktir theih a nih.

DMC hi Hmar student tamna pawl tak a nih a; HSA Unit hiel indinna hmuna a nih.  Amiruokchu,Hmar lecturer ei nei nawh. Hmar lecturer um si lo a, Hmar MIL ei nei thei khawm hi, thilmak tak a nih. Hi subject hawngna ding hin pawisa a sangtela deposit a ṭul a. Chu chu HLS-Manipur-in phal takin a mi hung thawpêk a. Chu el chu a tawpna a nih nawh. Directorate of Higher Education, (DHE), Govt of Manipur, Imphal le DMC karah file movement-hai Pu Darliensung-in tlawmngai insuoin a lo bawzui vawng a; a chunga ei lawm tak zet. Directorate of Higher Education le DMC karah iengkim fel vawng sienkhawm, College Development Council (CDC), Manipur University remtipuina a la ṭul rawp a. CDC chun DMC-ah Hmar MIL inchuk theina dingin infrastructure ṭha tawk a um am ti on the spot inspection thaw a phut a. A hmaa ei hril ta angin, lecturer ei nei naw leiin DMC le MU thuneituhai chu Pu Darliensung, Selection Grade (Retd) le Prof Lal Dena’n tlawmngaia Hmar MIL class la dingin an assurance an pek a; chu hnunga chun college inspection team tir a nih. Inspection team hin negative report a pek a; amiruokchu Pu David K Zote, Joint Registrar, Manipur University-in minority language humhal le sukhmasawn hi University policy a ni bawk leiin, inspection report chu VC overrule inthawtirin DMC-ah Hmar MIL inchuk theina University-a inthawkin ei hmuh thei chauh a nih. Pu David chungah ei lawm tak zet.

Tlawmngai insuoin, mani sum sengin Pu Darliensung le Lal Dena chun an hun remchang ang peiin class an lak ṭan a. Sienkhawm Lal Dena ruok chun class sawt a lak zawm thei nawh, a san chu Manipur University-a inthawka DMC tlungna dingin motor ṭum hni thleng a ṭul a; college gate tlung hnung khawma iemani chen kea lawn a la ngai nawk leiin.

Tu khawm hin Hmar MIL inchukna dingin DMC-ah hin prospect a ṭha tawk am? Hmar MIL hi lakzawm thei zing ning a tim? A hmaa ei hril tah angin, lecturer ei nei si nawh a, suktawp a ni el dim a nih? Hi thu hi DMC HSA unit, HLS Sub-Committee, Imphal le HSA Jt.Hqs, Imphal ṭhang ruola an rang thei anga khun taka an ngaituo a ṭul. Tlawmngaia inchuktirtu ding poutieng mi lak a ṭul. Hlaw ei pek thei naw khawma, lawmman anga a tlawm a zawng ei pek a tul. Chu ding chun sum ei mamaw nghal. Ei nei tasa khawm enkawl harsa ei lai zingin Hmar MIL hi College dang hieng G.P.Women’s College le a dang dangah lak theina dinga hmalak a tha dim? Hieng issue po po hai hi HLS, Manipur le HLS Sub-committee, Imphal le inrawna ngaituo vat ni thei sien nuom a um.

2. Hmar tawng boral inlau umna: Hienga hmabak inkho taka ei ngir lai zing hin, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) chun India hmar saka ṭawng iemani zat chu ṭawng boral inlau um (endangered languages) ti’n list a lo siem a. Chulaiah chun Hmar, Mizo le Meitei tawng an thang a. Ieng basis-a tawng boral inlau um ti hi an siem am a na? ti ei hriet nawh. Tawng boral inlau um, endangered language umzie ruok chu a hnuoia ang hin UNESCO chun hrilfiena a pek a; “an endangered language is a language that is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language”. UNESCO chun ṭawng an him naw dan indawtin category pali a siem a: 1. Vulnerable-V; 2. Definitely endangered-DE; 3.Severely endangered-SE; 4. Critically endangered-CE;

Khi category pali dungzui khin eini Manipur context-a ṭawng him lo le an him naw dan level UNESCO record dan chu a hnuoia ang hi a nih: Aimuol (CE); Anal (V); Gangte (DE); Hmar (V); Kabui (V); Koireng (CE); Kom (DE); Liangmei (V); Mao (V); Maram (V); Maring (V); Meitei (V); Mizo (V); Paite (V); Tangkhul (V); Tarao (CE); Thaduo (V); Zeme (V).
Ṭawng him tawk lo hai le an him tawk naw dan level le degree an dawtin ei hriet tah a. Iengleia ṭawng chu a him tawk naw thei a? Meitei tawng hi VIII Scheduled-ah chuong tah le regional language UPSC examna le parliament-ah chen hmang thei a ni tah a. Amiruokchu, Meitei tawng, tawng boral inlau um a ni theina awm chu Vai tawng le Sap tawng hung popular zuol lei niin an lang. Meitei thangthar pei hai hin mani tawng neka Sap tawng thiem an tumin an nuom lem vawng tah, a san chu Sap tawng hi international market-a tawng tlanglawn le hmang tak a nih tah leiin.
Mizo tawng hi VIII Schelduled zieklut khawm a la ni naw leiin, damte’n Vai tawng le Sap tawng hin a dip ral thei el awm de ti inlauna a um. Tulai Mizo thangthar lai a hma nekin Sap tawng ngaihlutna le thiem nuomna a nasa zuol. Hi le inzawm hin Pu Lalthangfala Sailo chun hienghin a lo ziek a: “Chik deuhin han ngaithla mah te u, kan Sap ta telh telh em mai a, kan tawng hi an va nek chep duh sawt em! Kum 1915-16 te kha chuan Mizo zingah Sap tawng thiam an la awm meuh pawh ka ring lo. Kum 100 a han vei chuan, Mizo Sap tawng thiamho tawng chu, Sap tawng thiam lo tan chuan, hriat thiam harsa khawpin Sap tawng an telh tam lutuk ta. Hetiang a ni chuan kum 100 dang ral leh ta se, kan tawng hian eng nge a an ang le?” Inlau um tak chu a nih.

Mizo tawng nek hmanin Hmar ṭawng ngirhmun hi a derthawng nawk zuollin an lang. Entirna dingin Ralte ṭawng hi zuk lang ei tih. Tuhin Ralte ṭawng chu “ṭawng thi” (extinct language) a ni tah. Ralte pahnam an thi mit vawng tina ni loin, Ralte ṭawng hrie Ralte thangtharhai lai an um ta nawh tina a nih. A umzie tak chu kum tinin Ralte population pung peih sienkhawm, Ralte population a pung hrat po leh, Ralte ṭawng hre lo an tam pei tina a nih.

Ralte hnam chunga thil tlung hi Hmarhai chungah khawm a tlung theih. Tipaimukh biela Hmar ṭawng hmang hai chungah a tlung naw theih. Inlau khawm a um nawh. Hmar inhlirhlangna hmun a ni leiin. Ieng hnam khawm, hnam tam lem laia hnamlaktla nina hmuna ṭawng chu a him nuom naw bik. Entirna’n Mizo (Lusei) ṭawng ei ti hin ram a lak hrat em em. Thu le hla tieng hma an sawn hrat leiin. Silai nekin thu le hla’n ram a lak hrat lem a, a det lem bawk. Entirna’n English mi, mi tlawmte khu kumzabi 19-na lai khan khawvela ramper nei lien tak, most powerful colonial power tia hriet an nih. An ṭawng chu khawvel ṭawng a ni tah a. An ramper maksan hnung hai khawmin, “Pi pe sai nawk a….” ti hla hlutsak nekin, “Jack and Jill went up a hill” ti hla dam hi ei uor lem tah a. Sap ṭawng thiem chu ei intlansiekna a hawih lem tah. Vairampura ei officer nau tam tak hai lem chun Hmar ṭawng an tiem thei naw chauh ni loin, an ṭawng thiem tah nawh. Sap ṭawng le Vai ṭawng bak an thiem ta meuh nawh
Ei inbengbelna Manipur, a bikin Tuiṭhaphaiah khawm hin Hmar ṭawng indik hmang le ziek an tlawm deuh deuh. Manipurah meuh khawm Hmar ṭawng hmatieng peia inchuk beiseina khawm hi an thim deuh deuh niin an lang. Tuta college le university-ah ei professor-hai a hmatiemin an hung pension pei a, an hmun hluotu ding hlak an tlawm deuh deuh. Annihai an pension vawng pha tuhaiin am Hmar MIL hi inchuktir tang an ta? Ei hma an thimin an chip nuom khawp el.

Beiseina umsun chu Assam Dimahasao District Council hnuoiah chauh a nih.Tu khawm hin N.C. Hills-a ei unau Hmarhai chu Hmar student pakhat chauh kainaah khawm Hmar MIL an lak thei. Ieng institutionah khawm Hmar ṭawng inchuktir dingin Hmar teacher an ruoi thei pei. Chuleiin Hmar ṭawng inchuktu an pung deuh deuh. Ei unau suopui Biate, Hrangkhawl, Gangte, Thadou, Chawrai, Sakechep, etc. hai baka Nepalihai chen khawmin HMAR VERNACULAR an lak chu tie? Assam ramah chu Hmar ṭawngin ram a lak lien deuh deuh. Hmar hnamzie indik tak khawm Assam rama ei unauhai lai hmu theiin a la um. Ṭhiek ṭawng la dam ṭawk ṭawk dam hi inchuk thar inla. Tuta Hmar ṭawng tuolleng leh hin chawkpawlin hmang kawp dan dam lampui zawng inla. Hmar ṭawng ei sukmuk lem ring a um. Ṭawng nisien, politics tieng ni sien, ei sandamna hi Assam ramah chauh khun an nghat lem niin an lang tah. Chuleiin, Dimahasau District Council bifurcate thawa, non-Dimasa area po le Cachar phaizawl huopa district nawrna hi ei political goal umsun, ṭawng le hnam damna ding tak chu a nih.


(A chunga article khi HSA DM College in One Day Seminar on Future of Hmar Language (Nakie tienga Hmar tawng ngirhmun ding) ti hmanga March 28, 2016 nia Prof. Lal Dena Paper present anih)


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